One of the ways Muslim leaders promote Islam is by talking about the glory of the Islamic civilization. The Islamic empire is said to be a system of tolerance, justice, and responsible for everything good in the world. Very often, when these claims are made the Western Christian civilization is criticised as corrupt, brutal, and failed. This method of promoting Islam is successful for a few reasons:

  1. The Western World is highly self-critical, and so when a speaker attacks Western culture, most Westerners acknowledge these faults.
  2. Most Westerners have little knowledge of Islamic history, and so assume what Islamic leaders say is true.
  3. Islam has a privileged status in Western universities:
    Hence in the study of Islam in the West, the dominant convention is that a critical approach is reserved for the Christian past but forbidden for the Muslim past. ... The net result is a romantic picture of the history of Islam avoiding and sometimes denying such issues as the jihadists’ slaughter and massive enslavement of traditional African believers. (John Alembillah Azumah, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa, pp. xiv-xv.)

In this article I invite you to begin to learn about Islam's involvement in slavery. This article was originally published by the Barnabas Fund April-May 2007 and is used by permission. It has been expanded mainly through the addition of quotes from Islamic sources.


The enslavement of human beings was practised by all the ancient civilisations of the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Africa. People became slaves the property of others through debt, by being sold into slavery by family members, by being captured in war, or through kidnapping by slave raiders and pirates. Nowadays, when slavery as such is banned in almost every country, there are still situations where people are effectively trapped in employment under harsh conditions. For example, they may be "bonded labourers" in Pakistan, unable to change jobs because of debts to their employer. Another scenario is that of expatriate domestic workers in Saudi Arabia, whose employers have seized their passports, and who are locked in the house to prevent them escaping. Such individuals are slaves in all but name. There are also still true slaves in some countries.

The European slave trade is well known, but that of Islam is not. Furthermore, Islam even played a part in the European slave trade, as Arab traders were involved with African chiefs in the business of providing Africans for the Europeans to enslave.

In the past, religions sought to justify the practice of slavery. Whilst, thankfully, most have rejected this now, Islam stands out as the exception.


Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, kept slaves. One of his biographers, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, states that he had four slave girls and adds a list of 27 male slaves (some of whom he freed).

Many slaves were gained as booty after victorious military campaigns. After defeating a Jewish tribe called the Banu Qurayza in 627, Muhammad executed all the men (numbering 600 to 900), and divided the women and children among his people as slaves. On this occasion, he took Rihana, the wife of the leader of the tribe, as a concubine. This story indicates the close linkage in classical Islam between prisoners of war, slaves and concubines. A prisoner of war was automatically a slave, and if female she was potentially a concubine as well.

Muhammad not only kept slaves and enslaved captives but also traded in African and other slaves, as did his companions and many other people in the Arabian Peninsula at that time. He also received slaves as gifts. One of his concubines, Mary the Copt (apparently a Christian), was given to him by the ruler of Egypt.

Narrated `Umar: I came and behold, Allah's Messenger was staying on a Mashroba (attic room) and a black slave of Allah's Messenger was at the top if its stairs. I said to him, "(Tell the Prophet) that here is `Umar bin Al- Khattab (asking for permission to enter)." Then he admitted me. (Sahih al-Bukhari 7263; vol 9, bk 91, no 368)

The apostle had ordered that every adult (male of the tribe) of B. Qurayza should be killed. ... Then the apostle divided the property, wives, and children of B. Qurayza among the Muslims ... Then the apostle sent Sa'd b. Zayd al-Ansari brother of b. 'Abdu'l-Ashhal with some of the captive women of B. Qurayza to Najd and he sold them for horses and weapons. (Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasulallah, p. 466)

Jabir reported: There came a slave and pledged allegiance to Allah's Apostle on migration; he (the Holy Prophet) did not know that he was a slave. Then there came his master and demanded him back, whereupon Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Sell him to me. And he bought him for two black slaves, and he did not afterwards take allegiance from anyone until he had asked him whether he was a slave (or a free man) (Sahih Muslim 1602; bk 10, no 3901)

Narrated `Abdullah bin Zam`a: The Prophet said, "None of you should flog his wife as he flogs a slave and then have sexual intercourse with her in the last part of the day." (Sahih al-Bukhari 5204; vol 7, bk 62, no 132)

No doubt many Muslims today reject the idea of enslaving others, however, Muhammad's example is traditionally considered by Muslims to be the perfect model for their own behaviour, and this has made any Islamic opposition to slavery diffcult. The argument that what he did was normal and acceptable in society of that time but not in the modern world carries little or no weight with conservative Muslims, who are interested only in copying Muhammad's example, and we have seen this in recent times.


The existence of slavery is accepted uncritically in the Qur'an, and slaves are often mentioned. Captive women could be taken as concubines, special permission being granted to Muhammad to allow him to do this in a Qur'anic verse:

O prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom Allah has assigned to thee; and daughters of thy paternal uncles and aunts and daughters of thy maternal uncles and aunts who migrated (from Mecca) with thee; and any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her this only for thee and not for the Believers (at large); We know what We have appointed for them as to their wives and the captives whom their right hands possess in order that there should be no diffculty for Thee. And Allah is Oft Forgiving Most Merciful (Qur'an 33:50)

This verse shows that, according to the Qur'an, taking slaves in war was a God-given right. These slaves were considered spoils of war, and the women were usually destined to be concubines of the victorious warriors. Muhammad received his share in enslaved women.

The right of Muslims to have sexual intercourse with female slaves is indicated in Qur'an 23:1-6 which gives Muslims sexual rights over their wives and over those "whom their right hands possess".

Many texts indicate that slaves can be used as a sort of currency to pay penalties imposed for the misdemeanours of their owners. Qur'an 4:92, for example, explains that the manslaughter of a Muslim could be paid for by freeing a believing (i.e. Muslim) slave and paying compensation to the relatives. If a slave cannot be afforded then the penalty is a two months' fast.

While the Qur'an does not condemn slavery, it does encourage kindness to slaves. Qur'an 24:33 instructs Muslims to allow a slave of good character to buy their freedom if they so request, and even tells the slave-owner to contribute towards the sum to be raised. This verse also prohibits compelling unwilling slave girls into prostitution.

... And if any of your slaves ask for a deed in writing (to enable them to earn their freedom for a certain sum), give them such a deed, if you know any good in them; yea, give them something yourselves out of the means which God has given to you. But force not your maids to prostitution when they desire chastity....

The freeing of slaves is included in a list of virtuous acts (Q 90:12-13), and elsewhere the Qur'an commends spending money to ransom slaves (Q 2:177).

[However, the Qur'an fosters an attitude of Islamic supremacy.

It is He who has sent His Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may uplift it above every religion (Qur’an 9:33, Arberry, 48:28-29, 61:9)

You (Muslims) are the best community that has been raised up for mankind. You enjoin right conduct and forbid indecency; and you believe in Allah. And if the People of the Scripture had believed it had been better for them. Some of them are believers; but most of them are evil-livers. (Qur'an 3:110)

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Verse: "You (true Muslims) are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind."(3:110) means, the best of peoples for the people, as you bring them with chains on their necks till they embrace Islam. (Sahih al-Bukhari 4557; vol 6, bk 60, no 80)

The result of this is that slavery seems acceptable and right to those who wish to follow the Qur'an strickly.

Slaves and slave boys are one of the many rewards promised to Muslims in paradise.

And there go round, waiting on them menservants of their own, as they were hidden pearls. (Qur'an 52:24)

There wait on them immortal youths. (Qur'an 56:17)

There wait on them immortal youths, whom, when thou seest, thou wouldst take for scattered pearls. (Qur'an 76:19)


The shari'a (Islamic law) has much to say about slaves, including the acquisition of slaves, slave-trading, freeing slaves, the status of female slaves, and how to deal with runaway slaves and lost slaves. In wars against non-Muslims, prisoners of war were to be killed, exchanged for Muslim prisoners of war, freed for ransom, or enslaved. The women and children were to be similarly exchanged or enslaved. Many rules concerning the practice of owners marrying slaves and taking slaves as concubines were outlined in order to determine paternity and ownership of children born to a female slave. A slave concubine who bore children to her master would be elevated to the status of um walad (mother of his child) and her children would be equal to the legal offspring. She could not be sold and was freed on her master's death. If a concubine was freed she could not have legal status as a wife, but would live with her master as his mistress and her children would be illegitimate. There were also rules about slaves marrying each other.

The four caliphs who came after Muhammad discouraged the enslavement of Muslims and it was eventually prohibited, but the enslavement of non-Muslims continued apace. If a non-Muslim slave converted to Islam he or she remained a slave. As an act of charity by the owner, however, a slave could be emancipated but only a believing slave deserved freedom. In Muslim lands, a slave had few civil or legal rights: a slave had no right to be heard in court; no right to property; any goods he did manage to accumulate would be inherited by his master not his children. He could marry only with the permission of the owner; he could not give alms or make a pilgrimage; he was considered a mere piece of property.

As in all contexts where slavery was practised, the actual treatment of slaves varied: some masters were kind, and some were cruel.


As Islam expanded by conquest (jihad), extending within a few centuries from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian subcontinent, and spreading to south-east Asia, central Asia and Africa, large numbers of people were enslaved. The supply of slaves had to be constantly replenished because there was a high death rate amongst them. Furthermore, marriage amongst slaves was not encouraged, and in any case many male slaves were castrated (an operation which was often fatal). But Muslims and non-Muslim minorities living under the protection of the Islamic state could not be enslaved. So the need for more slaves became a motive for continuing to expand and conquer non-Muslim territories.

A vast network of slave trading developed. Within Islamic territories there were slaves from central Asia, from the Byzantine Empire, from sub-Saharan Africa and from Europe. As far afield as Indonesia the business of seizing and selling slaves flourished, with the Muslim Acehnese active in "manhunting" even in the early 20th century.

As well as domestic duties, agriculture and concubinage, some were used as soldiers. These slave-soldiers included the Turkic Mamelukes who eventually became a powerful force within Islam and set up their own states.

High prices were paid for eunuchs, and the practice of castration persisted from the 9th century until the early 20th century. Islam prohibits physical mutilation so many eunuchs were castrated before entering Islamic territory.

The slave trade became a great source of wealth and power to Muslim states, and remained an important part of the economy of parts of the Muslim world well into the 20th century.

[The jihad slave system included contingents of both sexes delivered annually in conformity with the treaties of submission by sovereigns who were tributaries of the caliph. When Amr conquered Tripoli (Libya) in 643, he forced the Jewish and Christian Berbers to give their wives and children as slaves to the Arab army as part of their jizya. From 652 until its conquest in 1276, Nubia was forced to send an annual contingent of slaves to Cairo. Treaties concluded with the towns of Transoxiana, Sijistan, Armenia, and Fezzan (Maghreb) under the Umayyads and Abbasids stipulated the annual dispatch of slaves from both sexes.

However, the main sources for the supply of slaves remained the regular raids on villages within the dar al-harb and the military expeditions which swept more deeply into the infidel lands, emptying towns and provinces of their inhabitants. This strategy, practiced from the beginning of the Arabo-Islamic expansion by the first four caliphs and then by the Umayyads and their successor, remained constant over all the areas covered by jihad. The depopulation and desertification of once-flourishing and densely peopled regions, described in full by Muslim and Christian chroniclers, was the result of the massive deportation of captives. Musa b. Nusayr brought back thirty thousand prisoners from his expeditions to Spain (714). (Bat Ye'or, The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam - From Jihad to Dhimmitude, pp. 108-109.)

Slavery in general and black enslavement in particular thus developed into a deeply entrenched institution, accepted in the mainline Muslim heritage by learned Muslim lawyers and pious believers as a matter of course. Right from the conquest of Egypt by Arab armies between 639 and 642 CE, the “land of the Blacks”, bilad al-Sudan, became a reservoir of slave for the Muslim world. The main sources of slavers were war (jihad), raid, tribute, purchase and kidnapping. (John Alembillah Azumah, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa, p. 141.)

The holiest city of Islam, Mecca, became “the centre of slave-trade in the world” and remained so well into the twentieth century; from there slaves captured and brought from East Africa and the Sudan were distributed to all parts of Arabia and the Muslim world. (John Alembillah Azumah, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa, p. 146.)]


The explosive expansion of Islam in the seventh and eighth centuries spilled westward across North Africa in a series of military campaigns by Arab forces. Initial sorties gave way to methodical occupation which sought to control urban centres in the name of the caliph. Among the fruits of these campaigns and the subsequent occupation was a steady flow of booty, and large proportion of which consisted of slaves seized from the indigenous Berber population. After decades of such predation, many Berbers nevertheless adopted Islam. What appealed to them was not the mainstream Islam of the Caliphs but rather an opposing sectarian form known as Ibadism. As Muslim Ibadis, the Berbers, though later routed by the caliph's armies, nevertheless succeeded in transforming their status from slaves to slavers. Between the end of the seventh century and the middle of the eighth they created a trading network that tapped the regions south of the Sahara, the Bilad al-Sudan, as a new source for slaves. By monopolizing the supply of black slaves as well as the means by which they reached the markets in North Africa, Ibadi Berber traders created a secure economic base throughout the eastern and central Maghrib. (E. Savage, 'Berbers and Blacks: Ibadi slave traffic in eighth-century North Africa', Journal of African History, vol. 33, no. 3 (1992), p. 351)

Muslim enslavement of traditional African believers during the wake of the jihad movements is one single factor that accounts for large-scale conversion to Islam in the eighteenth - and nineteenth - century Western and Central Sudan. (John Alembillah Azumah, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa, p. 102.)

With regard to most parts of Muslim Africa, however, long before Europeans ever appeared on the scene slavery was a well-organized and institutionalized system. (John Alembillah Azumah, p. 117.)

Black slaves were imported into the Muslim world from Africa by a number of routes northward across the Sahara desert, and by sea into Arabia and the Persian Gulf. Estimates of the number involved vary greatly but it seems that there may easily have been 10 million, perhaps even twice that number.

Two-thirds of African slaves were female. The males were considered to be troublesome. An uprising of slaves from West Africa, the Zanj, who had been imported into the Tigris-Euphrates delta to reclaim salt marshland through their backbreaking labour, lasted from 869 until 883.

The mortality rate was very high because of the harsh conditions, but the trade was so lucrative that merchants were not deterred by the numbers who died. Harrowing eye witness accounts tell of the vast scale and miserable conditions of the slave trade in Africa. In the 1570s many thousands of black Africans were seen for sale in Cairo on market days. In 1796 a caravan was seen by a British traveller leaving Darfur with 5,000 slaves. Black eunuchs became favoured for the royal harems. Even after Britain outlawed the slave trade in 1807, a further 2 million Africans were enslaved by Muslim traders.

The Arabic word abd which means "slave" or "servant" is used as an insult to black people in Lebanon, Syria, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf.


The enslavement of captives taken when the Ottoman armies raided Christian countries was part of the state system of the Ottoman Empire. After he conquered Constantinople in 1453 Sultan Mehmed wrote to various Muslim rulers boasting of the enslavement of its Christian population. The Ottomans engaged in slave trading from Gibraltar to Central Asia.

The Balkan Christians of the Ottoman Empire suffered cruelly, particularly under the brutal and bitterly resented child-levy, the devshirme. From the 15th century to the early 17th century the Ottomans would seize a certain proportion of Christian boys from their villages every few years, forcibly convert them to Islam and train them for the elite fighting force known as the Janissaries or for the state bureaucracy. The devshirme was sternly enforced. If any Christian parent tried to prevent the taking of his child he was immediately hanged from his own door frame. It is estimated that between 500,000 and one million boys, from the ages of 8 to 20, were taken in this way. Occasionally, armed uprisings against the system took place, but they were quickly crushed. Some children ran away, only to return and give themselves up when their parents were tortured. Many resorted to bribery to escape recruitment. In the early 17th century the devshirme was abandoned and the Ottomans obtained their slaves from new sources Georgians and Circassians of the Caucasus and Slav and Central Asian slaves captured and traded by the Crimean Tatars. By the early 19th century this supply was reduced and the Ottomans turned to Africa.

Eunuch slaves were in high demand in the Ottoman Empire, principally as guardians of the harems. Prague became an important centre for the castration of European slaves being imported to the Ottoman Empire.


The Arabs were the first invaders of India to capture and enslave large numbers of its inhabitants. In the 7th and 8th centuries, and later under the Ghaznavids (962-1187), huge numbers of Hindus became slaves. Many more were enslaved under the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526), the Timurid jihad (1398), and the Mughals (1526-1857). K.S. Lal claims that the slave-taking added significantly to the growth of the Muslim population in India: "... every slave captured in war or purchased in the market or sent in lieu of revenue or tribute was invariably converted to Islam, so that slave-taking in medieval India was the most flourishing and successful missionary endeavour."

The nobility owned huge numbers of slaves and maintained large slave armies. For example, a 14th century sultan kept 180,000 slaves of whom 40,000 were palace guards. In this situation of abundance the price of female slaves was very low. The large numbers of slaves captured in campaigns were either sold in local markets or sent to markets in central Asia.


Muslim pirates from the Barbary (North African) coast, authorised by their governments, were active in seizing and enslaving white Christians from western Europe from the 16th to the 18th century. They attacked not only ships but also coastal villages. While Spain and Italy bore the brunt of these attacks, the Barbary pirates often called corsairs would also go to Portugal, France, England, Ireland and even Iceland. The slaves were kept in wretched conditions and many were worked to death, especially those unfortunate enough to be chosen to row the corsair galleys.

Between 1530 and 1780 at least a million white Christian Europeans were enslaved on the Barbary coast. Around the year 1600 there were estimated to be some 35,000 in captivity there at any one time. Many records of the letters sent home, telling of the terrible sufferings the slaves were enduring, still exist. The book, White Gold, is an excellent example of one of the records. Some European slaves converted to Islam in order to get easier duties or, in the case of women in the harems, to stay with their children who were being brought up as Muslims.

The slaves' only hope lay in being redeemed by payment of a ransom. Churches collected offerings for this purpose. Many of those who went to North Africa with funds to negotiate the release of the slaves were church leaders. In Spain and Italy ransoming slaves was considered an act of great merit: "Their [only] fault, their crime, is recognising Jesus Christ as the most divine Saviour ... and of professing Him as the True Faith."

English slaves were largely neglected by their home country, especially in comparison with those from southern European countries. They knew this, and were demoralised. An "Algerian Duty" was set aside from the customs income in England to redeem slaves, but much of it was diverted to other uses. Many English slaves died in captivity.

The United States of America also had their citizens enslaved by North African Muslims. This is recorded by Thomas Jefferson in a letter to Congress. In 1786, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams met with the Tripolitan ambassador to Britain to discuss the unprovoked attacks on American ships and the enslaving of US citizens. In their report to the US government they write:

We took the liberty to make some inquiries concerning the Grounds of their pretentions to make war upon Nations who had done them no Injury, and observed that we considered all mankind as our friends who had done us no wrong, nor had given us any provocation.

The Ambassador answered us that it was founded on the Laws of their Prophet, that it was written in their Koran, that all nations who should not have acknowledged their authority were sinners, that it was their right and duty to make war upon them wherever they could be found, and to make slaves of all they could take as Prisoners, and that every Musselman who should be slain in battle was sure to go to Paradise. (American Commissioners to John Jay, March 28th 1786)

Morocco abolished European slavery during the reign of Mulai Sulaiman, Emperor of Morocco (1794-1822).


Although Tunisia, Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire abolished slavery in the 19th century under pressure from the West, in east Africa and other places it persisted into the 20th century, prompting the League of Nations and later the United Nations to condemn the practice. The nations of the Arabian Peninsula were among the last to outlaw slavery: Qatar in 1952, Saudi Arabia and the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962, the United Arab Emirates in 1963, South Yemen in 1967, and Oman in 1970.

Saudi Arabia

After abolition in 1962, about 10,000 slaves were freed out of an estimated 15,000 - 30,000. In 1965 the Saudi royal family still kept hundreds of slaves. Many in Saudi Arabia advocate slavery even now. Sheik Saleh Al-Fawzen, a leading scholar and author of a religious textbook for schools, has said, "Slavery is a part of Islam", and that those Muslims who oppose slavery "are ignorant, not scholars".

In Saudi Arabia, the plight of migrant workers often amounts to slavery. Domestic workers are often exploited, forcibly con£ned, beaten, underfed, and sometimes raped. The lives of these workers are complicated further by deeplyingrained gender, religious and racial discrimination in Saudi society. Government policies, the practice of private employers, and unfair legal proceedings all combine to oppress large numbers of poor and desperate foreigners trying to earn a living in Saudi Arabia.


In ancient times slavery was common in Mauritania. In the 8th century Mauritania came under Islamic authority. From this point onward, only black Africans have been enslaved in Mauritania.

The old practice of forming slave armies was revived after the end of colonialism. Black Mauritanians were forced into military units and sent into African villages to subdue and kill the inhabitants. The soldiers were then settled on the lands of the villagers, and authorised to defend themselves and undertake punitive campaigns against the population.

There have been several legal/constitutional rulings to outlaw slavery (in 1905, twice in 1961, and in 1981), but they have not been effective.

In Mauritania slavery was abolished on paper in 1981 but anti-slavery and other human rights organizations calim that as at 1995 (in continues) (John Alembillah Azumah, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa, p. 155.)

In 1994 there were still an estimated 90,000 black Mauritanians (Harratin) in the possession of their Arab/Berber masters. It was also reported that some 300,000 freed slaves were still serving their former masters because of psychological or economic dependence. The 1981 ordinance abolishing slavery granted compensation to slave holders for the loss of their slaves, but the money was not forthcoming, which may be one of the reasons why most slave owners continued to hold their slaves.

Although some try to defend the institution by noting that many families of slaves have worked for the same family for generations, and claiming that they are merely servants working for their keep, the testimonies of the small number who have managed to escape tell of brutalities and hardship which seem more like slavery.

There do not seem to be any firm figures on the number of slaves in Mauritania currently, but it is clear that slavery still continues there.


With the imposition of Islamic law in 1983 by the Northernbased Arab Islamic government, the age-old practice of slavery in the Sudan gathered momentum. During the civil war which raged from 1983 until 2005, captured Southerners were frequently enslaved. The men were often shot, the children were made slaves (herding cattle or performing other unpaid tasks) while the women became the sexual slaves of their owners. Such slavery was abolished in the 2005 peace treaty which ended the civil war.

Since 1986 more than 200,000 people of the Dinka tribe are estimated to have been enslaved in a complex network of buyers, sellers and middlemen, with many of the slaves brutally treated and some forcibly converted to Islam.


In Pakistan, many lives are blighted as enormous numbers of people eke out an existence as "bonded labourers" unable to leave their desperately hard and low-paid jobs. A high proportion of these are Christian workers with Muslim employers.

Evidence came to light in 2006 of the kidnapping and enslavement of young boys from Christian villages in the Punjab, an operation coordinated by a leading member of a militant Islamic group, the Jamaat-ud Daawa. The children, aged between 6 and 12, were held in unspeakable conditions, beaten, barely fed, and forbidden to talk, play or pray, before being sold for approximately $1,700 each into the sex trade or into domestic servitude.


Many Muslims agree that there is no place for slavery in the modern world but there has as yet been no sustained critique of the practice. The difficulties and dangers of confronting the example of Muhammad, and the teaching of the Qur'an and shari'a (which most Muslims believe cannot be changed) have dampened any internal debate within Islam. While slavery still exists in many Islamic countries, few Muslim leaders show remorse for the past, discuss reparations, or show that repugnance for the scourge of slavery which eventually led to its abolition in the West. It is time for Muslims to emphatically and publicly condemn the practice of slavery in any form and ensure that their legal codes supporting it are changed.


An interview with John Alembillah Azumah, author of, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa.

A debate on this subject

The Splinter In Islam's Side


John Alembillah Azumah, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa, Oxford: One World, 2001.

Andrew G Bostom (ed.), The Legacy of Jihad - Islamic Holy War and the Fate of Non-Muslims, New York: Prometheus Press, 2005, pp. 529-588 & 660-663.

Allan Fisher, Slavery and Muslim Society in Africa, London: C. Hurst & Co. 1971.

Bernard Lewis, The Arabs in History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 95ff.

M.A. Khan, Islamic Jihad - A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism and Slavery, New York, Bloomington: iUniverse, 2009.

Giles Milton, White Gold, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2004.

Sean O'Callaghan,The Slave Trade Today, New York: Crown, 1961.

The author welcomes your response via email.
© Samuel Green 2024. Updated 3rd January 2024.
More articles by Samuel Green

Answering Islam Home Page