The Muslim Criteria For God

How the Lord Jesus passes and Allah fails the Islamic Test for Deity

Sam Shamoun


Muslims have produced a pamphlet titled, Is Jesus Really God? (1, 2) in order to show that Christ does not have the essential attributes of Deity and therefore cannot be God.

The problem with such articles is that these Muslims invariably focus on verses where emphasis is placed on Jesus’ humanity, on his having human limitations, e.g. Christ grew in wisdom and stature (Luke 2:40, 52), didn’t know the day or hour of his return (Mark 13:32; Matthew 24:36) etc., as if Christians deny that Jesus was truly human to the core (with the exception of sin). And yet these same polemicists will also brush aside or twist the meaning of all the scores of passages that affirm the perfect Deity of Christ.(1)

In light of this we plan to show here that the Lord Jesus has all of the essential attributes of God and then turn the Muslim arguments against Allah in order to prove that he doesn’t pass the test for Godhood.

With the foregoing in mind we now proceed to the arguments.

1a. God is All Knowing:

"then hear from heaven, your dwelling place. Forgive and act; deal with each man according to all he does, since you know his heart (for you alone know the hearts of all men)," 1 Kings 8:39

"I the LORD search the heart and examine the mind, to reward a man according to his conduct, according to what his deeds deserve." Jeremiah 17:20

"whenever our hearts condemn us. For God is greater than our hearts, and he knows everything." 1 John 3:20

1b. Jesus is also:

"Immediately Jesus knew in his spirit that this was what they were thinking in their hearts, and he said to them, ‘Why are you thinking these things?’" Mark 2:8

"‘Now we can see that you know all things and that you do not even need to have anyone ask you questions. This makes us believe that you came from God.’ ‘You believe at last!’ Jesus answered." John 16:30-31

"The third time he said to him, ‘Simon son of John, do you love me?’ Peter was hurt because Jesus asked him the third time, ‘Do you love me?’ He said, ‘Lord, you know all things; you know that I love you.’ Jesus said, ‘Feed my sheep.’" John 21:17

"To the angel of the church in Thyatira write: These are the words of the Son of God, whose eyes are like blazing fire and whose feet are like burnished bronze… I will strike her children dead. Then all the churches will know that I am he who searches hearts and minds, and I will repay each of you according to your deeds." Revelation 2:18, 23

1c. But Allah is not.

According to the Quran Allah has to put people to the test that he might learn something new about them:

If a wound has afflicted you (at Ohud), a wound like it has also afflicted the (unbelieving) people; and We bring these days to men by turns, and that Allah MAY KNOW those who believe and take witnesses from among you; and Allah does not love the unjust. And that He may purge those who believe and deprive the unbelievers of blessings. Do you think that you will enter the garden while Allah has NOT YET KNOWN those who strive hard from among you, and (He has not) known the patient. S. 3:140-142 Shakir

That which befell you, on the day when the two armies met, was by permission of Allah; that He MIGHT KNOW the true believers; And that He MIGHT KNOW the hypocrites, unto whom it was said: Come, fight in the way of Allah, or defend yourselves. They answered: If we knew aught of fighting we would follow you. On that day they were nearer disbelief than faith. They utter with their mouths a thing which is not in their hearts. Allah is Best Aware of what they hide. S. 3:166-167 Pickthall

O you who believe! Allah will certainly try you in respect of some game which your hands and your lances can reach, that Allah MIGHT KNOW who fears Him in secret; but whoever exceeds the limit after this, he shall have a painful punishment. S. 5:94 Shakir

This explains why Allah uses "perhaps" and "may be" a lot, since he is not certain about the future:

Then, it may be that you will give up part of what is revealed to you and your breast will become straitened by it because they say: Why has not a treasure been sent down upon him or an angel come with him? You are only a warner; and Allah is custodian over all things. S. 11:12 Shakir

Yet it may be, if they believe not in this statement, that thou (Muhammad) wilt torment thy soul with grief over their footsteps. S. 18:6 Pickthall

Allh said: "You are granted your request, O Msa (Moses)! And indeed We conferred a favour on you another time (before). When We inspired your mother with that which We inspired. Saying: ‘Put him (the child) into the Tabt (a box or a case or a chest) and put it into the river (Nile), then the river shall cast it up on the bank, and there, an enemy of Mine and an enemy of his shall take him.’ And I endued you with love from Me, in order that you may be brought up under My Eye, When your sister went and said: ‘Shall I show you one who will nurse him?’ So We restored you to your mother, that she might cool her eyes and she should not grieve. Then you did kill a man, but We saved you from great distress and tried you with a heavy trial. Then you stayed a number of years with the people of Madyan (Midian). Then you came here according to the fixed term which I ordained (for you), O Msa (Moses)! And I have Istana'tuka, for Myself. Go you and your brother with My Ayt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), and do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My Remembrance. Go, both of you, to Fir'aun (Pharaoh), verily, he has transgressed (all bounds in disbelief and disobedience and behaved as an arrogant and as a tyrant). And speak to him mildly, PERHAPS he may accept admonition or fear Allh." They said: "Our Lord! Verily! We fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress (all bounds against us)." He (Allh) said: "Fear not, verily! I am with you both, hearing and seeing." S. 20:36-46 Hilali-Khan

He frowned and turned away. Because the blind man came unto him. What could inform thee but that he MIGHT grow (in grace) Or take heed and so the reminder might avail him? S. 80:1-4 Pickthall

For more on Allah’s ignorance please read the following articles:

2a. God is All Powerful:

"See now that I myself am He! There is no god besides me. I put to death and I bring to life, I have wounded and I will heal, and no one can deliver out of my hand." Deuteronomy 32:39

"The LORD foils the plans of the nations; he thwarts the purposes of the peoples. But the plans of the LORD stand firm forever, the purposes of his heart through all generations." Psalm 33:10-11

"Our God is in heaven; he does whatever pleases him." Psalm 115:3

"The LORD does whatever pleases him, in the heavens and on the earth, in the seas and all their depths." Psalm 135:6

"Remember this, fix it in mind, take it to heart, you rebels. Remember the former things, those of long ago; I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me. I make known the end from the beginning, from ancient times, what is still to come. I say: My purpose will stand, and I will do all that I please. From the east I summon a bird of prey; from a far-off land, a man to fulfill my purpose. What I have said, that will I bring about; what I have planned, that will I do." Isaiah 46:8-11; cf. 55:10-11

"At the end of that time, I, Nebuchadnezzar, raised my eyes toward heaven, and my sanity was restored. Then I praised the Most High; I honored and glorified him who lives forever. His dominion is an eternal dominion; his kingdom endures from generation to generation. All the peoples of the earth are regarded as nothing. He does as he pleases with the powers of heaven and the peoples of the earth. No one can hold back his hand or say to him: ‘What have you done?’" Daniel 4:34-35

2b. Jesus is also:

"Jesus gave them this answer: ‘I tell you the truth, the Son can do nothing by himself; he can do only what he sees his Father doing, because whatever the Father does the Son also does. For the Father loves the Son and shows him all he does. Yes, to your amazement he will show him even greater things than these. For just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son gives life to whom he is pleased to give it. Moreover, the Father judges no one, but has entrusted all judgment to the Son, that all may honor the Son JUST AS they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father, who sent him. I tell you the truth, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life and will not be condemned; he has crossed over from death to life. I tell you the truth, a time is coming and has now come when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God and those who hear will live… Do not be amazed at this, for a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear HIS voice and come out—those who have done good will rise to live, and those who have done evil will rise to be condemned.’" John 5:19-25, 28-29

The Lord Jesus emphatically says that he cannot work apart from the Father, since he always works in perfect union with him, and can do everything that the Father does such as raise the dead, give life etc. He repeats this point of giving eternal life elsewhere:

"My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they follow me. I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one can snatch them out of my hand. My Father, who has given them to me, is greater than all; no one can snatch them out of my Father's hand. I and the Father are one." John 10:27-30

Jesus further says that this will result in everyone honoring him in the same way that they honor his Father!

And because Christ is all-powerful no one could kill him or take his life away unless he permitted it:

"The reason my Father loves me is that I lay down my life—only to take it up again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again. This command I received from my Father." John 10:17-18

He even has the power to raise himself back from the dead!

"Jesus answered them, ‘Destroy this temple, and I WILL RAISE IT AGAIN in three days.’ The Jews replied, ‘It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and you are going to raise it in three days?’ But the temple he had spoken of was his body. After he was raised from the dead, his disciples recalled what he had said. Then they believed the Scripture and the words that Jesus had spoken." John 2:19-22

These are rather astonishing claims since no creature could dare say that s/he can only do what God does and can do whatever God does since this requires omnipotence, e.g. One must have the power of God to do the works which God alone can do such as raising the dead and giving eternal life. Nor could they demand that others give him/her the same honor that they render unto God.

In order to more fully appreciate the words of the Lord Jesus contrast them with what the Quran states about Muhammad:

"Lo! thou wilt die, and lo! they will die;" S. 39:30 Pickthall

Say: "I am no bringer of new-fangled doctrine among the messengers, NOR DO I KNOW WHAT WILL BE DONE WITH ME OR WITH YOU. I follow but that which is revealed to me by inspiration; I am but a Warner open and clear." S. 46:9 Y. Ali

And what Muhammad said about himself:

Narrated 'Um al-'Ala:
An Ansari woman who gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet that the Ansar drew lots concerning the dwelling of the Emigrants. 'Uthman bin Maz'un was decided to dwell with them (i.e. Um al-'Ala's family), 'Uthman fell ill and I nursed him till he died, and we covered him with his clothes. Then the Prophet came to us and I (addressing the dead body) said, "O Abu As-Sa'ib, may Allah's Mercy be on you! I bear witness that Allah has honored you." On that the Prophet said, "How do you know that Allah has honored him?" I replied, "I do not know. May my father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Allah's Apostle! But who else is worthy of it (if not 'Uthman)?" He said, "As to him, by Allah, death has overtaken him, and I hope the best for him. By Allah, though I am the Apostle of Allah, yet I do not know what Allah will do to me." By Allah, I will never assert the piety of anyone after him. That made me sad, and when I slept I saw in a dream a flowing stream for 'Uthman bin Maz'un. I went to Allah's Apostle and told him of it. He remarked, "That symbolizes his (good) deeds." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, Number 266)


Narrated Abu Huraira:
When Allah revealed the Verse: "Warn your nearest kinsmen," Allah’s Apostle got up and said, "O people of Quraish (or said similar words)! Buy (i.e. save) yourselves (from the Hellfire) as I cannot save you from Allah's Punishment; O Bani Abd Manaf! I cannot save you from Allah's Punishment, O Safiya, the Aunt of Allah's Apostle! I cannot save you from Allah's Punishment; O Fatima bint Muhammad! Ask me anything from my wealth, but I cannot save you from Allah's Punishment." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 51, Number 16)

What a stark contrast between the prophet of Islam and the eternal Lord of glory! Muhammad, unlike the Lord Jesus, couldn’t grant anyone eternal life nor was he certain about his own destiny.

2c. But Allah is not.

For example, unlike the true God of the Holy Bible who can appear in human form and eat food:

"The LORD appeared to Abraham near the great trees of Mamre while he was sitting at the entrance to his tent in the heat of the day. Abraham looked up and saw three men standing nearby. When he saw them, he hurried from the entrance of his tent to meet them and bowed low to the ground. He said, ‘If I have found favor in your eyes, my lord, do not pass your servant by. Let a little water be brought, and then you may all wash your feet and rest under this tree. Let me get you something to eat, so you can be refreshed and then go on your way—now that you have come to your servant.’ ‘Very well,’ they answered, ‘do as you say.’ So Abraham hurried into the tent to Sarah. ‘Quick,’ he said, ‘get three seahs of fine flour and knead it and bake some bread.’ Then he ran to the herd and selected a choice, tender calf and gave it to a servant, who hurried to prepare it. He then brought some curds and milk and the calf that had been prepared, and set these before them. While THEY ATE, he stood near them under a tree… Then the LORD said, ‘The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great and their sin so grievous that I will go down and see if what they have done is as bad as the outcry that has reached me. If not, I will know.’ The men turned away and went toward Sodom, but Abraham remained standing before the LORD. Then Abraham approached him and said: ‘Will you sweep away the righteous with the wicked? What if there are fifty righteous people in the city? Will you really sweep it away and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous people in it? Far be it from you to do such a thing—to kill the righteous with the wicked, treating the righteous and the wicked alike. Far be it from you! Will not the Judge of all the earth do right?’ … When the LORD had finished speaking with Abraham, he left, and Abraham returned home." Genesis 18:1-8, 20-25, 33

And also become a man without ceasing to be God, experiencing genuine human weakness without this affecting a change within his essential Divine nature:

"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been madeHe was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him… The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth." John 1:1-3, 10, 14

"For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form," Colossians 2:9

"He [the Father] also says, ‘In the beginning, O Lord [the Son], you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment. You will roll them up like a robe; like a garment they will be changed. But you remain the same, and your years will never end.’" Hebrews 1:10-12

"Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever." Hebrews 13:8

Allah is incapable of such feats (at least according to Islamic theology). Allah cannot eat food and even uses eating as an argument against the Deity of the Lord Jesus and of Mary!

The Messiah, son of Mary, was only a Messenger; Messengers before him passed away; his mother was a just woman; they both ate food. Behold, how We make clear the signs to them; then behold, how they perverted are! S. 5:75 Arberry

Thus, the true God of the Bible is more powerful than the Islamic deity.

See the following articles for more details:

3a. God does not have a God.(2)

3b. Yet Jesus did have a God, even though he himself is God:

"Thomas said to him, ‘My Lord and my God!’ Then Jesus told him, "Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.’" John 20:28-29

Since he became and will forever continue to be a man:

"As they were talking about these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, ‘Peace to you!’ But they were startled and frightened and thought they saw a spirit. And he said to them, ‘Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself. Touch me, and see. For a spirit does not have FLESH AND BONES AS YOU SEE THAT I HAVE.’ And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. And while they still disbelieved for joy and were marveling, he said to them, ‘Have you anything here to eat?’ They gave him a piece of broiled fish, and he took it and ate before them. Then he said to them, ‘These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.’ Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, and said to them, ‘Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem." Luke 24:36-47

"Now Thomas (called Didymus), one of the Twelve, was not with the disciples when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, ‘We have seen the Lord!’ But he said to them, ‘Unless I see the nail marks in his hands and put my finger where the nails were, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe it.’ A week later his disciples were in the house again, and Thomas was with them. Though the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them and said, ‘Peace be with you!’ Then he said to Thomas, ‘Put your finger here; see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe.’" John 20:24-27

"Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants on his throne, he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, NOR DID HIS FLESH SEE CORRUPTION. This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses." Acts 2:30-32

"‘The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by A MAN whom he has appointed; and of this he has given assurance to all BY RAISING HIM FROM THE DEAD.’ Now when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked. But others said, ‘We will hear you again about this.’" Acts 17:30-32

"For there is one God, and there IS one mediator between God and men, THE MAN Christ Jesus," 1 Timothy 2:5 – cf. John 1:14

As such, the Father began and will continue to relate to his Son as his God:

"Jesus said, ‘Do not hold on to me, for I have not yet returned to the Father. Go instead to my brothers and tell them, "I am returning to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God."’" John 20:17

"But about the Son he says, ‘Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever, and righteousness will be the scepter of your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy." Hebrews 1:8-9

"Wake up! Strengthen what remains and is about to die, for I have not found your deeds complete in the sight of my God… Him who overcomes I will make a pillar in the temple of my God. Never again will he leave it. I will write on him the name of my God and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which is coming down out of heaven from my God; and I will also write on him my new name." Revelation 3:2, 12

3c. But Allah didn’t become a man, nor is he a plurality of Divine Persons according to Islamic theology. He should therefore have no God above him, and yet the Quran says he does have a God, Lord, Master etc.

What, shall I seek after any judge but God? For it is He who sent down to you the Book well-distinguished; and those whom We have given the Book know it is sent down from thy Lord with the truth; so be not thou of the doubters. S. 6:114

What, is every man of them eager to be admitted to a Garden of Bliss? Not so; for We have created them of what they know. No! I swear by the Lord of the Easts and Wests, surely We are able to substitute a better than they; We shall not be outstripped. S. 70:38-41

Allah swears by the Lord of the easts and wests, says that he will seek no other judge besides God and that he gave the book that Muhammad’s Lord sent down!

Allah even worships along with the angels since he engages in prayer, a clear act of worship:

He it is who prays for you and His angels too (Huwa allathee yusallee alaykum wa malaikatuhu), to bring you forth out of the darkness into the light, for He is merciful to the believers. S. 33:43 Palmer

Verily, God AND His angels pray for the prophet (Inna Allaha wa malaikatahu yusalloona ala al-nabiyyi). O ye who believe! pray for him and salute him with a salutation! S. 33:56 Palmer

Prayer entails calling upon or supplicating someone who can hear you, which in the context of Islamic worship means invoking Allah:

When My servants ask thee concerning Me, I am indeed close (to them): I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he calleth on Me: Let them also, with a will, Listen to My call, and believe in Me: That they may walk in the right way. S. 2:186 Y. Ali

And your Lord says: "Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer): but those who are too arrogant to serve Me will surely find themselves in Hell - in humiliation!" S. 40:60 Y. Ali

After all, no Muslim will deny that angels are invoking or calling upon Allah whenever they pray for Muhammad or believers.

Yet these same passages say that Allah is also engaged in prayer and is therefore calling on someone, which is worship according to Islamic teaching:

Chapter (…) Something Else About ‘The Supplication Is The Essence Of Worship’

3371. Anas bin Malik narrated that the Prophet said: "The supplication is the essence of worship." (Da‘if)

[Abu ‘Eisa said:] This Hadith is Gharib from this route, we do not know it except as a narration of Ibn Lahi‘ah…

3372. An-Nu‘man bin Bashir narrated that the Prophet said: "The supplication, is worship." Then he recited: And Your Lord said: "Call upon me, I will respond to you. Verily, those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell humiliated." (Sahih)

[Abu ‘Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan Sahih. Mansur and Al-‘A‘mash narrated it from Dharr, and we do not know it except from the narration of Dharr. [He is Dharr ‘Abdullah Al-Hamdani, trustworthy, the father of ‘Umar bin Dharr.]


Supplication is worship in itself, and for proof the Prophet recited the Verse of Surat Ghafir, "Call upon Me, I will respond to you. Verily, those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell humiliated." This Verse shows that not begging His favors is a sign of scorn. As supplication is the essence of worship, and without its essence, the supplication is nothing but lifeless utterances. (English Translation of Jami‘ At-Tirmidhi, Compiled by Imam Hafiz Abu ‘Eisa Mohammad Ibn ‘Eisa At-Tirmidhi, From Hadith no. 3291 to 3956, translated by Abu Khaliyl (USA), Ahadith edited & referenced by Hafiz Abu Tahir Zubair ‘Ali Za’i [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors, First Edition: November 2007], Volume 6, 45. The Book Of Supplications From The Messenger Of Allah, pp. 102-103)

We are, thus, left perplexed with the Quran’s assertion that Allah prays since this leads us to ask whom exactly is he calling on? And since this is an act of worship whom is Allah worshiping when he prays? Himself or some other divinity, perhaps the very one which the Quran mentions, the one whom Allah calls his lord and judge?

Lest we be accused of reading too much into these specific passages here is one reference where the Islamic deity is singing hymns:

Lo! verily, ye and that which ye worship, Ye cannot excite (anyone) against Him. Save him who is to burn in hell. There is not one of US but hath his known position. Lo! We, even We are they who set the ranks, Lo! WE, even WE are they who hymn His praise S. 37:161-166 Pickthall

Allah is supposed to speaking here as he shifts from first person plural to third person singular pronouns. But this is where the confusion sets in. He knows his position, sets the ranks, and is the one who hymns the praises of God! Who tells Allah what his position is and to whom is singing? So much for the Quran being a linguistic miracle.


And (as for) those who take guardians besides Him, Allah watches over them, and you have not charge over them. And thus have We revealed to you an Arabic Quran, that you may warn the mother city and those around it, and that you may give warning of the day of gathering together wherein is no doubt; a party shall be in the garden and (another) party in the burning fire. And if Allah had pleased He would surely have made them a single community, but He makes whom He pleases enter into His mercy, and the unjust it is that shall have no guardian or helper. Or have they taken guardians besides Him? But Allah is the Guardian, and He gives life to the dead, and He has power over all things. And in whatever thing you disagree, the judgment thereof is (in) Allah's (hand); that is Allah, MY Lord, on Him do I rely and to Him do I turn time after time. S. 42:6-10 Shakir

The one (We) who revealed the Quran to Muhammad (you) is speaking here, which means that this is Allah who is addressing Muhammad. But, then, the one who revealed the Quran not only refers to Allah in the third person (Allah, Him) but also says that Allah is his Lord whom he relies on and constantly turns to! In other words, Allah is saying that Allah is his Lord whom he depends on!

Talk about mass confusion.

We suggest the following articles for more details concerning Allah having a god whom he worships:

4a. God is an invisible Spirit:

"Yet a time is coming and has now come when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for they are the kind of worshipers the Father seeks. God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in spirit and in truth." John 4:23-24

4b. Jesus is as well:

"So it is written: ‘The first man Adam became a living being’; the last Adam, a life-giving spirit." 1 Corinthians 15:45

Yet Jesus became man in order that others might be able to see the invisible God manifested in visible form:

"Then Jesus cried out, ‘When a man believes in me, he does not believe in me only, but in the one who sent me. When he looks at me, he sees the one who sent me.’" John 12:44-45

"Jesus answered: ‘Don't you know me, Philip, even after I have been among you such a long time? Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, "Show us the Father"? Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and that the Father is in me? The words I say to you are not just my own. Rather, it is the Father, living in me, who is doing his work. Believe me when I say that I am in the Father and the Father is in me; or at least believe on the evidence of the miracles themselves.’" John 14:8-11

"He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation." Colossians 1:15

"Beyond all question, the mystery of godliness is great: He appeared in a body, was vindicated by the Spirit, was seen by angels, was preached among the nations, was believed on in the world, was taken up in glory." 1 Timothy 3:16

"That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched—this we proclaim concerning the Word of life. The life appeared; we have seen it and testify to it, and we proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and has appeared to us. We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard, so that you also may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ." 1 John 1:1-3

4c. Allah, on the other hand, is not an invisible spirit but a visible being composed of a body of some kind.

For instance, Allah has a face:

And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honour will abide forever. S. 55:27

He has eyes:

So wait patiently (O Muhammad SAW) for the Decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes, and glorify the Praises of your Lord when you get up from sleep. S. 52:48

He has hands and fingers:

They made not a just estimate of Allah such as is due to Him. And on the Day of Resurrection the whole of the earth will be grasped by His Hand and the heavens will be rolled up in His Right Hand. Glorified is He, and High is He above all that they associate as partners with Him! S. 39:67

Narrated ‘Abdullah:
A Jew came to the Prophet and said, "O Muhammad! Allah will hold the heavens on a Finger, and the mountains on a Finger, and the trees on a Finger, and all the creation on a Finger, and then He will say, ‘I am the King.’ " On that Allah’s Apostle smiled till his premolar teeth became visible, and then recited:–
‘No just estimate have they made of Allah such as due to him… (39.67) ‘Abdullah added: Allah’s Apostle smiled (at the Jew’s statement) expressing his wonder and believe in what was said. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 93, Number 510)

He has legs and shins:

Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "Paradise and the Fire (Hell) argued, and the Fire (Hell) said, "I have been given the privilege of receiving the arrogant and the tyrants.’ Paradise said, ‘What is the matter with me? Why do only the weak and the humble among the people enter me?’ On that, Allah said to Paradise. ‘You are My Mercy which I bestow on whoever I wish of my servants.’ Then Allah said to the (Hell) Fire, ‘You are my (means of) punishment by which I punish whoever I wish of my slaves. And each of you will have its fill.’ As for the Fire (Hell), it will not be filled till Allah puts His Foot over it whereupon it will say, ‘Qati! Qati!’ At that time it will be filled, and its different parts will come closer to each other; and Allah will not wrong any of His created beings. As regards Paradise, Allah will create a new creation to fill it with." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 373)

"(Remember) the Day when the Shin shall be laid bare (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) and they shall be called to prostrate (to Allah), but they (hypocrites) shall not be able to do so," S. 68:42

Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri…
Then the Almighty will come to them in a shape other than the one which they saw the first time, and He will say, ‘I am your Lord,’ and they will say, ‘You are not our Lord.’ And none will speak: to Him then but the Prophets, and then it will be said to them, ‘Do you know any sign by which you can recognize Him?’ They will say. ‘The Shin,’ and so Allah will then uncover His Shin whereupon every believer will prostrate before Him and there will remain those who used to prostrate before Him just for showing off and for gaining good reputation. These people will try to prostrate but their backs will be rigid like one piece of a wood (and they will not be able to prostrate). (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 93, Number 532s)

He even laughs and casts shadows!

Narrated Abu Huraira:
On reaching then and seeing its life, charm, and pleasure, he will remain quiet as long as Allah wills and then will say, ‘O my Lord ! Let me enter Paradise.’ Allah will say, May Allah be merciful unto you, O son of Adam! How treacherous you are! Haven’t you made covenants and given pledges that you will not ask for anything more that what you have been given?’ He will say, ‘O my Lord! Do not make me the most wretched amongst Your creatures.’ So Allah will laugh and allow him to enter Paradise and will ask him to request as much as he likes. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12, Number 770)

Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, "Seven people will be shaded by Allah under His shade on the day when there will be no shade except His. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 24, Number 504)

Lest the reader assume that these are mere anthropomorphic descriptions here is what the Muslim scholars say concerning Allah’s body parts:

[1] All that has been revealed in Allah’s Book [the Qur'an] as regards the [Sifat…] Qualities of Allah..., the Most High,- like His Face, Eyes, Hands, Shins, (Legs), His Coming, His Istawa (rising over) His Throne and others; His Qualities or all that Allah’s Messenger... qualified Him in the true authentic Prophet's Ahadith (narrations) as regards His Qualities like [Nuzul His Descent or His laughing and others etc. The religious scholars of the Qur'an and the Sunna believe in these Qualities of Allah and they confirm that these are really His Qualities, without Ta'wil(interpreting their meanings into different things etc.) or Tashbih… (giving resemblance or similarity to any of the creatures) or Ta'til (i.e. completely ignoring or denying them i.e. there is no Face, or Eyes or Hands, or Shins etc. for Allah). These Qualities befit or suit only Allah Alone, and He does not resemble any of (His) creatures. As Allah’s Statements (in the Qur'an): (1) "There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer" (V.42:11). (2) "There is none comparable unto Him" (V.112:4). (Al-Imam Zain-ud-Din Ahmad bin Abdul Lateef Az-Zubaidi, The Translation of the Meanings of Summarized Sahih Al-Bukhari Arabic-English, Translated by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan [Maktaba Dar-us-Salam Publishers & Distributors, Riyadh Saudi Arabia], p. 842)

For more on this topic make sure to read the following:

5a. God is independent:

"The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by hands. And he is not served by human hands, as if he needed anything, because he himself gives all men life and breath and everything else." Acts 17:24-25

5b. Jesus is also:

"For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son to have life in himself." John 5:26

Christ has life in himself in the same way that the Father does. Having life within oneself implies that both the Father and the Son are self-existent and the Source of life, that they exist independently from all wants and needs and are the Ones who give life to all creation:

"In him was life, and that life was the light of men." John 1:4

"And this is the will of him who sent me, that I shall lose none of all that he has given me, but raise them up at the last day. For my Father's will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day." John 6:39-40

"Jesus said to her, ‘I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies; and whoever lives and believes in me will never die. Do you believe this?’ ‘Yes, Lord,’ she told him, ‘I believe that you are the Christ, the Son of God, who was to come into the world.’" John 11:25-27

This needs further explaining. The distinct members of the Godhead, although independent from creation, are interdependent. The Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit cannot function apart from one another since they are perfectly and eternally united as one Divine Being. Hence, just as the Son is dependent upon the Father the Father is likewise dependent upon the Son since God cannot be an eternal Father without an eternal Son. After all, fatherhood and parenting presuppose a relationship between two parties, which means you cannot have an eternal Father without an eternal Son. Hence, although completely independent from creation, the distinct Persons of the Godhead are not independent from one another.

5c. But Allah is not independent since he needs creation in order to express his attributes:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: By Him in Whose Hand is my life, if you were not to commit sin, Allah would sweep you out of existence and He would replace (you by) those people who would commit sin and seek forgiveness from Allah, and He would have pardoned them. (Sahih Muslim, Book 037, Number 6622#037.6622; see also Numbers 6620-6621)

The foregoing narrative indicates Muhammad (or the compilers of the hadith) realized that in order for Allah to truly be merciful and loving he must have a way of expressing it, which necessitated the creation of rational beings. Yet these statements imply that Allah needs creation, specifically sinful human beings, to exercise his divine prerogative of forgiveness.

Thus, Muhammad’s claims place Muslims in a dilemma since his comments basically prove that Allah is not self-sufficient. Unlike the true God of the Holy Bible, he is totally dependent upon his creatures in order to express his attributes and characteristics.

For more info concerning this point please read the following:

6a. No one is greater than God and no one can direct Him.(2)

6b. The Father is greater than Jesus:

"You heard me say, ‘I am going away and I am coming back to you.’ If you loved me, you would be glad that I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I." John 14:28

Yet Jesus is equal with the Father in that he can do all that the Father does and has the very same Divine attributes such as omnipresence:

"So, because Jesus was doing these things on the Sabbath, the Jews persecuted him. Jesus said to them, ‘My Father is always at his work to this very day, and I, too, am working.’ For this reason the Jews tried all the harder to kill him; not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God. Jesus gave them this answer: ‘I tell you the truth, the Son can do nothing by himself; he can do only what he sees his Father doing, because WHATEVER the Father does the Son ALSO DOES.’" John 5:16-19

"I tell you the truth, anyone who has faith in me will do what I have been doing. He will do even greater things than these, because I am going to the Father. And I WILL DO whatever you ask in my name, so that the Son may bring glory to the Father. You may ask me for anything in my name, and I WILL DO IT." John 14:12-14

Christ hears and answers all prayers, being the one who empowers his disciples to do miracles in his name.

"‘On that day you will realize that I am in my Father, and you are IN ME, and I AM IN YOU. Whoever has my commands and obeys them, he is the one who loves me. He who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I too will love him and show myself to him.’ … Jesus replied, ‘If anyone loves me, he will obey my teaching. My Father will love him, and WE will come to him and make OUR home with him.’" John 14:20-21, 23

Christ is present with every believer in the same way and to same degree that his Father is.

This shows that by greater Jesus didn’t mean that his Father was superior in essence, but rather that he was greater than the Son in repesct to status since Christ was on earth in the form of a slave whereas the Father remained in his own Divine glory and lofty position:

"For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many." Mark 10:45

"Also a dispute arose among them as to which of them was considered to be greatest. Jesus said to them, ‘The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who exercise authority over them call themselves Benefactors. But you are not to be like that. Instead, the greatest among you should be like the youngest, and the one who rules like the one who serves. For who is greater, the one who is at the table or the one who serves? Is it not the one who is at the table? But I am among you as one who serves." Luke 22:24-27

"And now, Father, glorify me in your presence with the glory I had with you before the world began." John 17:5

6c. Allah acknowledged that there is someone greater than himself whose will was distinct from his own and commands him:

Surely We shall inherit the earth and all that are upon it, and unto Us they shall be returned. And mention in the Book Abraham; surely he was a true man, a Prophet. And mention in the Book Abraham; surely he was a true man, a Prophet… So, when he went apart from them and that they were serving, apart from God, We gave him Isaac and Jacob, and each We made a Prophet; and We gave them of Our mercy, and We appointed unto them a tongue of truthfulness, sublime. And mention in the Book Moses; he was devoted, and he was a Messenger, a Prophet. We called to him from the right side Of the Mount, and We brought him near in communion. And We gave him his brother Aaron, of Our mercy, a Prophet… And mention in the Book Idris; he was a true man, a Prophet. We raised him up to a high place. These are they whom God has blessed among the Prophets of the seed of Adam, and of those We bore with Noah, and of the seed of Abraham and Israel, and of those We guided and chose. When the signs of the All-merciful were recited to them, they fell down prostrate, weeping. Then there succeeded after them a succession who wasted the prayer, and followed lusts; so they shall encounter error save him who repents, and believes, and does a righteous deed; those -- they shall enter Paradise, and they shall not be wronged anything; Gardens of Eden that the All-merciful promised His servants in the Unseen; His promise is ever performed. There they shall hear no idle talk, but only 'Peace.' There they shall have their provision at dawn and evening. That is Paradise which We shall give as an inheritance to those of Our servants who are godfearing. We come not down, save at the commandment of thy Lord. To Him belongs all that is before US, and all that is behind US, and all between that. Not one of you there is, but he shall go down to it; that for thy Lord is a thing decreed, determined. Then We shall deliver those that were godfearing; and the evildoers We shall leave there, hobbling on their knees. When Our signs are recited to them as clear signs, the unbelievers say to the believers, 'Which of the two parties is better in station, fairer in assembly?' And how many a generation We destroyed before them, who were fairer in furnishing and outward show! S. 19:40-42, 50-53, 56-74

The reader should keep in mind that Allah uses plural pronouns throughout the Quran, which means that he is speaking here. Thus, he is the one who commissioned the prophets, grants believers Paradise, punishes evildoers, and also comes down only by the command of Muhammad’s Lord!

Allah is even said to be a warner sent from God!

So were the People of Noah before them for they wickedly transgressed. With power and skill did We construct the Firmament: for it is We Who create the vastness of pace. And We have spread out the (spacious) earth: How excellently We do spread out! And of every thing We have created pairs: That ye may receive instruction. Hasten ye then (at once) to God: I am from Him a Warner to you, clear and open! And make not another an object of worship with God: I am from Him a Warner to you, clear and open! S. 51:46-51 Y. Ali


The Islamic umma (community) recognizes the Quran and the Sunna as the primary sources of knowledge about Allah. But since these sources make it clear that Allah cannot be the Supreme Being, upon what basis have Muslims come to believe otherwise?

Our dear Muslim reader, the belief that Allah is the Supreme Being is false and completely inconsistent with the words of Muhammad as presented both in the Quran and Sunna. God is one and he is not Allah.

If you are interested in the truth about God and your relationship to him, we invite you to investigate the truth of the Lord Jesus as documented in God’s true Word, the Holy Bible.

Recommended Reading


(1) Some Muslim dawagandists attempt to use the variant reading found in Matthew 24:36 to bolster their case against the omniscience of the Lord Jesus:

"No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father."

In certain manuscripts (MSS) the phrase "nor the Son" are missing, which Muslim neophytes such as Bassam Zawadi (*) and Sami Zaatari (*) believe is a strong indication that even Christian scribes saw how damaging this text is in undermining the Deity of Christ. (Zaatari even raised this objection in his recent debate against Christian apologist Louis Ruggiero [*] concerning the Deity of the Lord Jesus which took place on Paltalk [*] on March 8, 2008).

The major problem with this assertion is that these dawagandists have erroneously assumed that scribes omitted, rather than added, the phrase to the text of Matthew 24:36. The evidence suggests that "nor the Son" was added to Matthew in order to make it correspond with its Markan parallel.

Textual critics have long realized that scribes had a tendency to add words to parallel passages found throughout the Synoptic Gospels in order to make them read the same way. After all, a scribe sometimes assumed that the shorter reading may have been the result of a bad copy or an accidental omission by a previous scribe and would therefore add what he felt were the missing words taken from the parallel passages found in the Synoptics.

This may have been the case with Matthew 24:36, e.g. a scribe thought that the words "nor the Son" should be there since the Markan parallel included them.

As the translators of the New English Translation (NET Bible) explain it:

53 tc ‡ Some important witnesses, including early Alexandrian and Western mss (?*,2 B D T 13 pc it vgmss Irlat Hiermss), have the additional words (oude ho huios, "nor the son") here. Although the shorter reading (which lacks this phrase) is suspect in that it seems to soften the prophetic ignorance of Jesus, the final phrase ("except the Father alone") already implies this. Further, the parallel in Mark 13:32 has oude ho huios, with almost no witnesses lacking the expression. Hence, it is doubtful that the absence of "neither the Son" is due to the scribes. In keeping with Matthew’s general softening of Mark’s harsh statements throughout his Gospel, it is more likely that the absence of "neither the Son" is part of the original text of Matthew, being an intentional change on the part of the author. Further, this shorter reading is supported by the first corrector of ? as well as L W 1 33 vg sy co Hiermss. Admittedly, the external evidence is not as impressive for the shorter reading, but it best explains the rise of the other reading (in particular, how does one account for virtually no mss excising oude huios at Mark 13:32 if such an absence here is due to scribal alteration? Although scribes were hardly consistent, for such a theologically significant issue at least some consistency would be expected on the part of a few scribes). Nevertheless, NA27 includes oude huios here. (Source; bold and underline emphasis ours)

One would think that if this were such a difficult passage that scribes would have then proceeded to omit the phrase from the Markan text as well.

Moreover, even if it were a case of an omission in what way would this refute the explicit and overwhelming Biblical evidence for the perfect Deity of the Lord Jesus? All this shows is that some scribes erroneously thought that the phrase somehow reflected poorly upon Christ’s Deity, which only proves that they were grossly mistaken since the NT also teaches that Jesus was fully human and had human limitations.

Besides, it should be kept in mind that not every scribe would have been well versed in essential Christian or Biblical theology, and some may have had difficulties with passages that emphasized the limitations that Christ took on during the Incarnation. But that simply reflects a poor understanding of the Bible on their part, not upon the teachings of the Bible itself.

Finally, we need to reiterate this point: The Holy Bible teaches that Jesus is God who became man and experienced human limitations without this affecting a change to his essential Divine attributes. Hence, in his waking human consciousness Jesus obviously wouldn’t know all the things that he knew on a deeper, subconscious level, especially in regards to his Divine consciousness.

After all, we know that human beings are capable of knowing a lot more information on a deeper, subconscious level which they may not be able to recall in their waking conscious state. Now if this is the case with finite human beings who have only one nature then why should we be surprised to discover that Christ knows all things on a deeper level, in his Divine consciousness, which he would not know in his waking human consciousness?

(2) This assumes unitarianism, that God is a singularity-within-unity as opposed to being a plurality of persons. If unitarianism is correct then Jesus cannot be God if he has a God and if the Father is greater than him. However, this begs the question since the Muslim (and any other anti-Trinitarian for that matter) has assumed that his/her unitarian conception of Deity is true. If we do not take unitarianism as a theological given then there is no problem with affirming all that the Holy Bible teaches, e.g. Jesus is God who is personally distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit, and who also became and continues to be a man (albeit a glorified One).

In other words, if we let the Bible speak concerning the nature of God then there is no problem with the Father being Jesus’ God and greater than him in some sense. After all, if there are distinct Persons within the Godhead then it is quite plausible for one Person to be greater in rank and authority, without this suggesting that the other(s) is(are) somehow inferior in essence.

To provide a helpful illustration, the Holy Bible teaches that man is composed of both male and female who bear the Divine image equally and who are called to coexist as one flesh:

"Then God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let THEM rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.’ So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them." Genesis 1:26-27

"This is the written account of Adam's line. When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. He created them male and female and blessed them. And when they were created, he called THEM ‘man.’" Genesis 5:1-2

"The man said, ‘This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called "woman," for she was taken out of man.’ For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and they will become one flesh." Genesis 2:23-24

At the same time, the Holy Bible teaches that the male (or husband) is greater than the female (or wife) in terms of authority, not in essence or nature since they are both one in union with the Lord Jesus:

"Now I want you to realize that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God… A man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man. For man did not come from woman, but woman from man; neither was man created for woman, but woman for man. For this reason, and because of the angels, the woman ought to have a sign of authority on her head. In the Lord, however, woman is not independent of man, nor is man independent of woman. For as woman came from man, so also man is born of woman. But everything comes from God. 1 Corinthians 11:3, 7-12

"There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus." Galatians 3:28

In a similar manner, the Father is greater in terms of authority but not in relation to essence since the Holy Bible emphatically proclaims the absolute Deity of the Son and the Divine Personality of the Holy Spirit.

Moreover, if one of these Divine Persons chose to enter creation as a man then there would be absolutely no problem for the other Divine member(s) to begin relating to him as his God. Hence, since the Divine Son became man it shouldn’t surprise us that the Father began to relate to him as his God from that moment onwards.

To put this simply, it is true that there is no being outside of God who is greater than him in terms of essence and nature, as well as in rank and authority. Yet within the Godhead, as far as the intra-Trinitarian relationship is concerned (e.g. how the distinct Persons relate to one another), the Divine Father is greater in authority but equal with his Divine Son and eternal Spirit in essence and nature.

Articles by Sam Shamoun
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