Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog

How Good Logic Leads to Good Theology

And to a Rejection of Islam Pt. 1

Sam Shamoun

Paul Bilal Williams quotes from Paul’s first inspired epistle to Timothy to prove that Jesus cannot be God. He cites the following text to show that Jesus does not possess the essential characteristics and qualities of God since God cannot die and can never be seen: 

“God the blessed and only Ruler, the King of kings and the Lord of lords, who alone is immortal and who lives in unapproachable light, whom no one has seen or can see”

(1 Timothy 6 vv. 15-16).


In the first place, Williams has assumed that this passage is necessarily speaking of God the Father, as opposed to Jesus Christ, and cites a version which reflects this view by inserting the word God into their translation (even though the word God doesn't appear in the Greek text). However, a closer look at the immediate context shows that it is not at all certain that the blessed Apostle has the Father in mind: 

“I charge you in the presence of God, who gives life to all things, and of Christ Jesus, who testified the good confession before Pontius Pilate, that you keep the commandment without stain or reproach until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, which HE will bring about at the proper time — HE WHO is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, WHO ALONE possesses immortality and dwells in unapproachable light, WHOM no man has seen or can see. To HIM be honor and eternal dominion! Amen.” 1 Timothy 6:13-16

As the readers can see, the nearest antecedent or referent of the pronouns is not God but the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, the Apostle may actually be describing Christ as the One who alone possesses immortality by virtue of being God and who, because he is God in essence, is clothed in heavenly glory which no one is able to behold in all its fullness and splendor. We will have more to say about this later on in our rebuttal.

Revelation provides some corroboration for viewing Jesus as the object of the pronouns since in that book Christ is explicitly said to be the Lord of lords and King of kings:

“These will wage war against the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, because He is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those who are with Him are the called and chosen and faithful.” Revelation 17:14 – cf. 19:11-16

This in itself is an amazing assertion since according to the OT writings it is Yahweh who reigns from heaven as the Lord of lords!

“For the LORD your God is the God of gods and the Lord of lords, the great, the mighty, and the awesome God who does not show partiality nor take a bribe.” Deuteronomy 10:17

“Give thanks to the Lord of lords, For His lovingkindness is everlasting.” Psalm 136:3

Hence, for the NT writers to say that Christ rules in heaven as the Lord of lords they must have thought that he is God since you can’t have two Lord of lords in heaven; nor can you have God and a creature reigning together in heaven as the Lord of lords.

Secondly, Williams conveniently chooses to ignore the other things Paul wrote about Christ and the reason why he did so is obvious. A careful, in-depth examination of Paul’s inspired writings demonstrates that this blessed Apostle actually believed that Jesus Christ is Yahweh (even though he is not the Father or the Holy Spirit).

For instance, Paul taught that Christ is the Lord and righteous Judge of both the living and the dead who will appear on the Day of Judgment to reward the faithful by permitting them to enter into his kingdom. These facts lead the Apostle to break out in worship and praise of his risen and exalted Lord!

“I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and HIS kingdom… in the future there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord (ho kyrios), the righteous Judge (ho dikaios krites), will award to me on that day; and not only to me, but also to all who have loved HIS appearingThe Lord (ho kyrios) will rescue me from every evil deed, and will bring me safely to HIS heavenly kingdom; to Him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.” 2 Timothy 4:1, 8, 18

This isn’t the only place where the Apostle speaks of Jesus as the Lord of the living and the dead or as the One who comes to judge everyone in righteousness:

“Therefore having overlooked the times of ignorance, God is now declaring to men that all people everywhere should repent, because He has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness (krinein ten oikoumenen en dikaiosyne) THROUGH A MAN whom He has appointed, having furnished proof to all men by raising Him from the dead.” Acts 17:30-31

“For to this end Christ died and lived again, that He might be Lord both of the dead and of the living. But you, why do you judge your brother? Or you again, why do you regard your brother with contempt? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of God.” Romans 14:9-10

“For we must all appear before the judgment seat OF CHRIST, so that each one may be recompensed for his deeds in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad. Therefore, knowing the fear of the Lord, we persuade men, but we are made manifest to God; and I hope that we are made manifest also in your consciences.” 2 Corinthians 5:10-11

Paul writes elsewhere that Christ has been exalted to God’s right hand as the Head of all creation with all powers, rulers, dominions – in fact all of creation – being made subject to him:

“and what is the surpassing greatness of His power toward us who believe. These are in accordance with the working of the strength of His might which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, FAR ABOVE ALL RULE AND AUTHORITY AND POWER AND DOMINION, AND EVERY NAME THAT IS NAMED, not only in this age BUT ALSO IN THE ONE TO COME. And He put all things in subjection under His feet, and gave Him as head over all things to the church, which is His body, the fullness of Him who fills all in all.” Ephesians 1:19-23

The Apostle even goes so far as to proclaim that Christ possesses the entire fullness of Deity (i.e. that which makes God all that he is essentially) in bodily form!

For in Him all the fullness of Deity (theotetos) dwells in bodily form, and in Him you have been made complete, and He is THE HEAD OVER ALL RULE AND AUTHORITY;” Colossians 2:9-10

Noted Evangelical scholar Murray J. Harris brings out the significance of Paul’s statement:

“… The separation of katoikei from somatikos suggests that two distinct affirmations are being made (cf. Vincent 906): that the total plenitude of the Godhead dwells in Christ eternally and that this fullness now permanently resides in the incarnate Christ in bodily form. It is true that before the incarnation the pleroma did not reside in Christ somatikos; it is not true that before the incarnation the pleroma did not reside in him at all. Thus Paul implies both the eternal deity and the permanent humanity of Christ. Moreover, katoikeisomatikos implies that both before and after his resurrection Christ ‘possessed’ a soma (cf. 1:22; 1 Cor 15:44; Phil 3:21).” (Harris, Exegetical Guide To The Greek New Testament: Colossians And Philemon [William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI 2010], p. 89; bold emphasis ours)

What makes Paul’s statements about Christ so remarkable is that the Hebrew Bible teaches that it is Yahweh who comes to judge the world in righteousness. In fact, the Greek version of the OT even employs the same language which Paul used to describe Christ!

God is a righteous judge (ho theos krites dikaios), and strong, and patient, not inflicting vengeance every day.” Psalm 7:12[Eng. 11] LXX

“but the Lord (ho kyrios) endures for ever: he has prepared his throne for judgment. And he will judge the world in righteousness (krinei ten oikoumenen en dikaiosyne), he will judge the nations in uprightness.” Psalm 9:8-9[Eng. 7-8] LXX

“Say among the heathen, The Lord (ho kyrios) reigns: for he has established the world so that it shall not be moved: he shall judge the people in righteousness… then shall all the trees of the wood exult before the presence of the Lord (tou kyriou): for he comes, for he comes to judge the earth; he shall judge the world in righteousness (krinei ten oikoumenen en dikaiosyne), and the people with his truth.” Psalm 95[Eng. 96]:10, 12b-13 LXX – cf. 97[Eng. 98]:9

These same OT writings also testify that it is Yahweh’s kingdom which is eternal and that he is exalted as Head over all creation:

Your kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, And Your dominion endures throughout all generations.” Psalm 145:13

“So David blessed the LORD in the sight of all the assembly; and David said, ‘Blessed are You, O LORD God of Israel our father, forever and ever. Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, indeed everything that is in the heavens and the earth; Yours is the dominion, O LORD, and You exalt Yourself AS HEAD OVER ALL. Both riches and honor come from You, and You rule over all, and in Your hand is power and might; and it lies in Your hand to make great and to strengthen everyone. Now therefore, our God, we thank You, and praise Your glorious name. But who am I and who are my people that we should be able to offer as generously as this? For all things come from You, and from Your hand we have given You.” 1 Chronicles 29:10-14

“Then Jehoshaphat stood in the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem, in the house of the LORD before the new court, and he said, ‘O LORD, the God of our fathers, are You not God in the heavens? And are You not ruler OVER ALL THE KINGDOMS OF THE NATIONS? Power and might are in Your hand so that no one can stand against You.’” 2 Chronicles 20:5-6

It is abundantly clear that Paul has deliberately taken over the very language which the OT uses for Yahweh and applied it to the risen Christ!

As if this weren’t amazing enough, Paul does something quite astonishing in his letter to the Corinthians:

“Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we know that there is no such thing as an idol in the world, and that there is no God but one. For even if there are so-called gods whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords, yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and ONE LORD, JESUS CHRIST, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.” 1 Corinthians 8:4-6

Remarkably, Paul has reworked the language of the Shema, or the monotheistic confession found in Deuteronomy 6:4, in order to include Jesus within the unique identity of the God of Israel!

“Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one!” Deuteronomy 6:4

This means that as far as Paul was concerned the one Yahweh who is confessed in this OT creed is none other than the risen Lord Jesus Christ!

“While the rest of the world may be enamored with a multitude of gods and lords, for us, that is, for all those who have the knowledge common to all Christians (vv. 1, 4), things are different. The key words of v. 6, ‘Lord,’ ‘God,’ and ‘one,’ are taken from Deuteronomy 6:4 (‘the LORD our God, the LORD is one’), in which Lord and God both refer to the same (one) God. Here Paul ‘has glossed “God” with “the Father,” and “Lord” with “Jesus Christ,” adding in each case an explanatory phrase: “God” is the Father, “from whom are all things and we to him,” and the “Lord” is Jesus the Messiah, “through whom are all things and we through him.”’ Paul thus simultaneously reaffirms Jewish monotheism and THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE CHRISTOLOGY IMAGINABLE. Christ finds his identity within the very definition of that one God/Lord of Israel

“The statement of the unique lordship of Jesus Christ is central to Paul’s theology in general and to this letter in particular. The ‘christological monotheism’ affirmed here distinguishes the Christian community from both non-Christian Judaism and Gentile paganism. Jewish monotheism is affirmed against all forms of pagan polytheism or (atheism), while, against non-Christian Judaism, Christ is understood to participate in God’s identity.” (Roy E. Ciampa & Brian S. Rosner, The First Letter to the Corinthians (The Pillar New Testament Commentary), D. A. Carson (general editor) [William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, MI 2010], pp. 383-384; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Even James D. G. Dunn, who happens to be one of the very scholars whose writings Williams highly recommends, agrees that the blessed Apostle has reformulated the Shema so as to include Christ within this confession:

“It is obvious that there are indeed pre-Pauline and pre-Christian elements in v. 6. The confession that God is one is clearly Jewish (cf. particularly Deut. 6.4; James 2.I9); the confession that 'Jesus is Lord' is particularly beloved by Paul but was certainly characteristic of Hellenistic Christianity apart from Paul (Rom. 10.9; I Cor. I2.3; Eph. 4.5; Phil. 2.II); and the use of the prepositions 'from', 'through' and 'to' when speaking of God and the cosmos ('all things') was widespread in the ancient world and typically Stoic. But there is no real parallel to Paul's formulation here (not even I Timothy 2.5), and it seems to me more probable that Paul himself has put together these earlier and more widespread elements in response to the situation confronting him at Corinth … Thus he starts from the common ground of the basic monotheistic faith ('There is one God, the Father'); first he adds 'from whom (come) all things', an assertion which the Corinthians would have been familiar and with which they would no doubt have agreed; but then he also adds 'and we to him' or 'for whom we exist' (RSV). Next he appends to this the basic confession of Hellenistic or Gentile Christianity, 'Jesus Christ is Lord'. But with this he does three striking things. First he asserts that Christ the Lord also is one; thereby he splits the Shema (Deut. 6.4), the Jewish confession of monotheism, between God the Father and Christ the Lord IN A WAY THAT HAS NO EARLIER PARALLEL. Second he adds ‘through whom (came) all things’; thereby he splits the more regular Stoic formulation also between the one God (‘from him’, ‘to him’) and the one Lord (‘through him’; contrast Rom. II.36), in a way that is best paralleled in Jewish Wisdom tradition (as we have seen). Third, he again adds a reference to himself and his readers – ‘we (exist) through him’ – using the same preposition as in the preceding phrase.” (Dunn, Christology In The Making: A New Testament Inquiry into the Origins of the Doctrine of the Incarnation [William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapid, MI, Second edition 1996], VI. The Wisdom Of God, pp. 179-180; bold and capital emphasis ours)

And here is what Dunn says elsewhere,

In an astonishing adaptation of the Shema (Deut. 6.4), Paul attributes the lordship of the one God to Jesus Christ. And yet his confession of God as one is affirmed. Evidently the lordship of Christ was not thought of as any usurpation or replacement of God’s authority, but expressive of it. The one Lord attests the one God. This also ties in with Phil. 2.10-11. As noted above, the universal confession of Jesus’ lordship is understood as glorifying God the Father…

“The only obvious resolution of the tension set up by Paul’s talk of Jesus as Lord, then, is to follow the logic suggested by his reference of Yahweh texts to Jesus as Lord… That is, Jesus’ lordship is a status granted by God, a SHARING in his authority. It is not that God has stepped aside and Jesus has taken over. It is rather that God SHARED his lordship with Christ, without it ceasing to be God’s alone.

“In this light it becomes a matter of little surprise that Paul can speak both of ‘the judgment seat of God’ (Rom. 14.10) and equivalently of ‘the judgment seat of [the] Christ’ (2 Cor. 5.10). Christ is envisaged as acting as God’s representative. In the final day God will judge the secrets of humankind ‘through Jesus Christ’ (Rom. 2.16). Alternatively expressed, the Lord at his coming ‘will bring to light the things hidden in darkness and will disclose the purposes of the heart’; but the resulting commendation will be from God (1 Cor. 4.5). Similarly, Paul’s talk of ‘the day of the Lord’ is obviously modeled on traditional eschatological expectation. But evidently Paul regarded that as focusing on Christ. Hence, the variations ‘the day of our Lord Jesus Christ,’ ‘the day of the Lord,’ ‘the day of Jesus Christ,’ ‘the day of Christ.’ It is in Christ that God’s purpose reaches its climax. Similarly in Rom. 11.26, the hope of a final deliverer (Isa. 59.20) is transferred from Yahweh to Christ, though the focus in the remaining verses is solely on God (Rom. 11.28-36). This christologizing of traditional theistic eschatology is the best example of a more diffuse phenomenon in which ‘God-language’ becomes implicitly christological, without the Christology ceasing to be theocentric.

“In all this it is clear that Paul’s understanding of God’s purpose and of God’s revelation have been radically altered, but not his understanding of God as one and finally sovereign. Jesus as Lord SHARES in that sovereignty and exercises it at least in part. If at least the exalted Christ is conceived of as God’s vice-regent, it is not clear what the implied ‘more than (vice-regent)’ amounts to.” (The Theology of Paul The Apostle [William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI: Paperback edition, 2006], Chapter 4. The Gospel of Jesus Christ, 10. The Risen Lord, 10.5 Jesus as God?, pp. 253, 254-255; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Praising and Worshiping the risen Lord

That’s not at all. Not only did we find Paul breaking out in praise of the risen Lord in 2 Timothy 4:18:

“The Lord will rescue me from every evil action and will save me for his heavenly kingdom. To him be the glory forever and always. Amen.”

We also see him praying to Christ:

I thank Christ Jesus our Lord (Kai charin to echo… Christo ‘Iesou to kyrio hemon), who has strengthened me, because He considered me faithful, putting me into service, even though I was formerly a blasphemer and a persecutor and a violent aggressor. Yet I was shown mercy because I acted ignorantly in unbelief; and the grace of our Lord was more than abundant, with the faith and love which are found in Christ Jesus. It is a trustworthy statement, deserving full acceptance, that Christ Jesus CAME INTO THE WORLD to save sinners, among whom I am foremost of all. Yet for this reason I found mercy, so that in me as the foremost, Jesus Christ might demonstrate His perfect patience as an example for those who would believe in Him for eternal life. Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and glory forever and ever. Amen.” 1 Timothy 1:12-17

Here Paul thanks Christ for strengthening him, as well as for showing him grace and mercy by saving him from his sins. He even does so by using the same prayer language that he employs elsewhere in reference to thanking God!

I thank God (Charin echo to theo), whom I serve with a clear conscience the way my forefathers did, as I constantly remember you in my prayers night and day,” 2 Timothy 1:3 – cf. Luke 18:11; John 11:41; Romans 1:8; 1 Corinthians 1:4, 14; 14:18; Philippians 1:3; Colossians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:2, 2:13; Philemon 1:4 

Paul would also begin and end many of his epistles with an invocation to both God and Christ to bestow grace, mercy, peace, blessings etc., to the specific individuals or congregations that he was writing to:

“To Timothy, my true child in the faith: Grace, mercy and peace FROM God the Father AND Christ Jesus our Lord.” 1 Timothy 1:2 – cf. 2 Timothy 1:2

These invocations or benedictions presuppose the essential co-equality of the Father and the Son, just as Murray J. Harris explains:

“At the beginning of each of Paul's letters is a salutation that ends with a standardized formula: ‘Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ' (1 Cor. 1:3 and elsewhere). The apostle is not saying that there are two distinct sources of grace and peace, one divine and one human; significantly the preposition from (in Greek) is not repeated before ‘the Lord Jesus Christ.’ Rather, Father and Son jointly form a single source of divine grace and peace. Of no mere human being could it be said that, together with God, he was a font of spiritual blessing. Only if Paul had regarded Jesus as fully divine could he have spoken this way.” (Harris, Three Crucial Questions About Jesus [Baker Books; Grand Rapids, MI 1994], p. 77; bold emphasis ours)

Now all of this creates major problems for Williams’ assertions. According to Islam all invocations, especially requests for mercy and blessings, must be made directly and only to God:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin Masud:
We used to say the greeting, name and greet each other in the prayer. Allah's Apostle heard it and said:--"Say, 'At-tahiyyatu lil-lahi was-salawatu wat-taiyibatu. Assalamu 'Alaika aiyuha-n-Nabiyu wa-rahmatu-l-lahi wa-barakatuhu. Assalamu alaina wa-'ala 'ibadi-l-lahi as-salihin.. Ashhadu an la ilaha illa-l-lah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan 'abdu hu wa Rasuluh. (All the compliments are for Allah and all the prayers and all the good things (are for Allah). Peace be on you, O Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings (are on you). And peace be on us and on the good (pious) worshipers of Allah. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Apostle.) So, when you have said this, then you have surely sent the greetings to every good (pious) worship per of Allah, whether he be in the Heaven or on the Earth.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 22, Number 294; *)


Ibn 'Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah used to teach us tashahhud just as he used to teach us a Sura of the Qur'an, and he would say: All services rendered by words, acts of worship and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Allah's mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah's upright servants. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. In the narration of Ibn Rumh (the words are): “As he would teach us the Qur'an.” (Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 0798; *)


Narrated 'Aisha: that the Prophet said to her, “Gabriel sends Salam (greetings) to you.” She replied, "Wa 'alaihi-s-Salam Wa Rahmatu-l-lah." (Peace and Allah's Mercy be on him). Volume 8, Book 74, Number 270; *)

Islamic theology also teaches that Allah is the only sovereign Lord who reigns over all creation and who comes to judge the world:

And say, 'Praise belongs to God, who has not taken to Himself a son, and has not had a partner in His kingdom, nor had a patron against (such) abasement.' And magnify Him greatly! S. 17:111 Y. Ali 

And those who disbelieve will not cease to be in doubt about it (this Qur'an) until the Hour comes suddenly upon them, or there comes to them the torment of the Day after which there will be no night (i.e. the Day of Resurrection). The sovereignty on that Day will be that of Allah (the one Who has no partners). He will judge between them. So those who believed (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism) and did righteous good deeds will be in Gardens of delight (Paradise). S. 22:55-56 Hilali-Khan

Again, what will make you know what the Day of Recompense is? (It will be) the Day when no person shall have power (to do) anything for another, and the Decision, that Day, will be (wholly) with Allah. S. 82:18-19 Hilali-Khan

Nay, but when the earth is ground to atoms, grinding, grinding, And thy Lord shall come with angels, rank on rank, And hell is brought near that day; on that day man will remember, but how will the remembrance (then avail him)? He will say: Ah, would that I had sent before me (some provision) for my life! None punisheth as He will punish on that day! None bindeth as He then will bind. But ah! thou soul at peace! Return unto thy Lord, content in His good pleasure! Enter thou among My bondmen! Enter thou My Garden! S. 89:21-30 Pickthall

In light of this, Williams must accept the fact that the language that Paul used to describe Christ proves that the Apostle believed that Jesus is truly God as well as man (even though he is neither the Father nor the Holy Spirit).

Williams further writes:

Paul says that God alone is immortal.  Immortal means he does not die.  Check the dictionary. Now, anyone who believes that Jesus died cannot believe that Jesus is God. Such a belief would contradict what Paul said here. Furthermore, to say that God died is a blasphemy against God.  Who would run the world if God died?  Paul believed that God does not die.


There are several problems with Williams’ argument. First, it essentially attacks a straw man and basically misrepresents the Christian position. Christians believe that Jesus is both God AND man, not just God. Therefore, his argument would only work if Christians claimed that Jesus is only God and denied that he is also a man.

Secondly, Williams erroneously defines physical death as cessation of life, i.e. when someone dies s/he is no longer conscious. However, neither the Holy Bible nor the Quran define physical death in this manner since both books affirm that a person continues to exist as a disembodied soul/spirit and therefore continues to have consciousness (cf. Genesis 35:16-19; 1 Samuel 28:11-19; Psalm 88:10; Isaiah 14:9-11; Matthew 17:3; Luke 8:54-55; 16:19-31; 2 Corinthians 5:1-10; Philippians 1:23, 25; James 2:26; Revelation 6:9-11).

Notice, for instance, what the Quran says about those that are killed in jihad:

And say not of those who are slain in God's cause, "They are dead": nay, they are alive, but you perceive it not. S. 2:154 Muhammad Asad

But do not think of those that have been slain in God's cause as dead. Nay, they are alive! With their Sustainer have they their sustenance, exulting in that [martyrdom] which God has bestowed upon them out of His bounty. And they rejoice in the glad tiding given to those [of their brethren] who have been left behind and have not yet joined them, that no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve: they rejoice in the glad tiding of God's blessings and bounty, and [in the promise] that God will not fail to requite the believers who responded to the call of God and the Apostle after misfortune had befallen them. A magnificent requital awaits those of them who have persevered in doing good and remained conscious of God: S. 3:169-172 Asad

Hence, Jesus died by virtue of being a flesh and blood human being without ceasing to exist for those three days his body lay in the tomb.

Third, the same Paul also says that Christ is the One who ushered in immortality and eternal life by destroying death:

“Therefore do not be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord or of me His prisoner, but join with me in suffering for the gospel according to the power of God, who has saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace which was granted us in Christ Jesus from all eternity, but now has been revealed by the appearing of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel, for which I was appointed a preacher and an apostle and a teacher. For this reason I also suffer these things, but I am not ashamed; for I know whom I have believed and I am convinced that He is able to guard what I have entrusted to Him until that day.” 2 Timothy 1:8-12

Paul could only say this if he believed that Christ was God as well as man. After all, who else besides God can destroy death and give life and immortality to his creatures?

“I charge you in the presence of God, who gives life to all things…” 1 Timothy 6:13

“The God who made the world and all things in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands; nor is He served by human hands, as though He needed anything, since He Himself gives to all people life and breath and all things; and He made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed times and the boundaries of their habitation, that they would seek God, if perhaps they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us; for in Him we live and move and exist, as even some of your own poets have said, ‘For we also are His children.’” Acts 17:24-28

Now compare this with what the blessed Apostle says about Christ and the Holy Spirit: 

“So also it is written, ‘The first man, Adam, became a living soul.’ The last Adam A LIFE-GIVING Spirit. 1 Corinthians 15:45

“who also made us adequate as servants of a new covenant, not of the letter but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.” 2 Corinthians 3:6

Thus, it is quite obvious that Paul believed that the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are all capable of giving life to creatures!

We now come to the end of the first part of our rebuttal. Please move on to the second part.