Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog

Who is Islam’s Real Savior? Pt. 2

Sam Shamoun

We continue the discussion

Worshiping and Praying to the risen Lord Jesus

The third problem facing Williams is that not only is he arguing from silence when he states that Jesus in the Lord’s Prayer doesn’t direct anyone to pray to him or the Trinity, he is also conveniently overlooking all the evidence from Matthew and Luke-Acts which shows Christ being worshiped as God.

Here are some of the places in Matthew and Luke-Acts where Jesus is worshiped in such a way which would be simply idolatrous if he were merely a man:

“Shortly before dawn Jesus went out to them, walking on the lake. When the disciples saw him walking on the lake, they were terrified. ‘It’s a ghost,’ they said, and cried out in fear. But Jesus immediately said to them: ‘Take courage! I AM (ego eimi). Don’t be afraid.’ Lord, if it’s you,’ Peter replied, ‘tell me to come to you on the water.’ ‘Come,’ he said. Then Peter got down out of the boat, walked on the water and came toward Jesus. But when he saw the wind, he was afraid and, beginning to sink, cried out, ‘Lord, save me!’ Immediately Jesus reached out his hand and caught him. ‘You of little faith,’ he said, ‘why did you doubt?’ And when they climbed into the boat, the wind died down.’ Then those who were in the boat worshiped him, saying, ‘Truly you are the Son of God.’” Matthew 14:25-33 – cf. Mark 6:45-52; John 6:16-21; Job 9:8; Psalm 65:5-8; 89:5-9; 107:21-33; Isaiah 41:10-14; 43:1-5, 10-13

In the above reference, the disciples worship Christ as God’s Son in response to his sovereign control over the natural elements! 

“Suddenly Jesus met them. ‘Greetings, he said. They came to him, clasped his feet and worshiped him. Then Jesus said to them, ‘Do not be afraid. Go and tell my brothers to go to Galilee; there they will see me.’ … Then the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had told them to go. When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. Then Jesus came to them and said, ‘All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the NAME of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.’” Matthew 28:9-10, 16-20 – cf. 1:22-23; 18:20

Here we see Christ being worshiped in a context where he claims to be omnipresent (e.g., “I am surely with you always…”), possesses total sovereignty over the entire creation, and shares in the same divine name belonging to both the Father and the Holy Spirit!

In the following passage, the disciples worship Christ after his ascension into heaven where he now sits enthroned at God’s right hand as Lord over all creation:

“Then he led them out as far as Bethany, and lifting up his hands he blessed them. While he blessed them, he parted from them and was carried up into heaven. And they worshiped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy, and were continually in the temple blessing God.” Luke 24:50-53 – cf. 20:41-44; Acts 2:29-36

This next one is even more remarkable:

“The blind and the lame came to him at the temple, and he healed them. But when the chief priests and the teachers of the law saw the wonderful things he did and the children shouting in the temple courts, ‘Hosanna TO the Son of David,’ they were indignant. ‘Do you hear what these children are saying?’ they asked him. ‘Yes,’ replied Jesus, ‘have you never read, “From the lips of children and infants you, Lord, have called forth your praise”?’” Matthew 21:14-16 

In this example, the chief priests and scribes are upset over the children shouting praises to Christ. Jesus justifies their worship of him by quoting a Psalm which speaks of infants and children glorifying Yahweh God!  

LORD, our Lord, how majestic is your name in all the earth! You have set your glory in the heavens. Through the praise of children and infants you have established a stronghold against your enemies, to silence the foe and the avenger.” Psalm 8:1-2

The only way that Christ could use a Psalm which speaks of Yahweh receiving praise from infants to approve of the worship which the children were showing him is if Jesus thought he was/is Yahweh God! 

But that’s not all. Luke tells us that Christ’s earliest followers prayed directly to Jesus by calling on his name, which is one of the reasons why Paul persecuted Christians:   

“Now as he went on his way, he approached Damascus, and suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him. And falling to the ground he heard a voice saying to him, ‘Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?’ And he said, ‘Who are you, Lord?’ And he said, ‘I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. But rise and enter the city, and you will be told what you are to do.’ The men who were traveling with him stood speechless, hearing the voice but seeing no one. Saul rose from the ground, and although his eyes were opened, he saw nothing. So they led him by the hand and brought him into Damascus. And for three days he was without sight, and neither ate nor drank. Now there was a disciple at Damascus named Ananias. The Lord said to him in a vision, ‘Ananias.’ And he said, ‘Here I am, Lord.’ And the Lord said to him, ‘Rise and go to the street called Straight, and at the house of Judas look for a man of Tarsus named Saul, for behold, he is praying, and he has seen in a vision a man named Ananias come in and lay his hands on him so that he might regain his sight.’ But Ananias answered, ‘Lord, I have heard from many about this man, how much evil he has done to YOUR saints AT JERUSALEM. And here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all who call on YOUR name (pantas tous epikaloumenous to onoma sou).’ But the Lord said to him, ‘Go, for he is a chosen instrument of MINE to carry MY NAME before the Gentiles and kings and the children of Israel. For I will show him how much he must suffer for the sake of MY NAME.’ So Ananias departed and entered the house. And laying his hands on him he said, ‘Brother Saul, the Lord Jesus who appeared to you on the road by which you came has sent me so that you may regain your sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit.’ And immediately something like scales fell from his eyes, and he regained his sight. Then he rose and was baptized… And immediately he proclaimed Jesus in the synagogues, saying, ‘He is the Son of God.’ And all who heard him were amazed and said, ‘Is not this the man who made havoc IN JERUSALEM of those who called upon THIS name (tous epikaloumenous to onoma touto)? And has he not come here for this purpose, to bring them bound before the chief priests?’” Acts 9:1-18, 20-21

Paul himself started to pray to Christ once he was converted by the grace of the Lord Jesus: 

“And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law, well spoken of by all the Jews who lived there, came to me, and standing by me said to me, ‘Brother Saul, receive your sight.’ And at that very hour I received my sight and saw him. And he said, ‘The God of our fathers appointed you to know his will, to see the Righteous One and to hear a voice from HIS mouth; for you will be a witness for HIM to everyone of what you have seen and heard. And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized and wash away your sins, calling on HIS name (epikalesamenos to onoma autou).’ When I had returned to Jerusalem and was praying in the temple, I fell into a trance and saw HIM saying to me, ‘Make haste and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not accept your testimony about me.’ And I said, ‘Lord, they themselves know that in one synagogue after another I imprisoned and beat those who believed in YOU. And when the blood of Stephen YOUR witness was being shed, I myself was standing by and approving and watching over the garments of those who killed him.’ And HE said to me, 'Go, for I will send you far away to the Gentiles.’” Acts 22:12-21

Paul even characterizes Christians as those who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ:

“To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints together with all those who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ (tois epikaloumenois to onoma tou kyriou hemon ‘Iesou Christou), both their Lord and ours:” 1 Corinthians 1:2

The significance of such a practice can be more readily seen when we keep in mind that according to the Hebrew Scriptures true believers were those who would only call on the name of Yahweh!   

“Exalt the LORD our God; worship at his footstool! Holy is he! Moses and Aaron were among his priests, Samuel also was among those who called upon his name. They called to the LORD, and he answered them. In the pillar of the cloud he spoke to them; they kept his testimonies and the statute that he gave them.” Psalm 99:5-7

“I will lift up the cup of salvation and call on the name of the LORD, I will pay my vows to the LORD in the presence of all his people… I will offer to you the sacrifice of thanksgiving and call on the name of the LORD. I will pay my vows to the LORD in the presence of all his people.” Psalm 116:13-14, 17-18 – cf. Psalm 145:18; Genesis 4:26; 21:33; Deuteronomy 4:7; Joel 2:32

Noted NT scholar James D. G. Dunn, in a book which Williams himself highly praises and recommends to other Muslims, does a fine job of explaining why this early Christian practice of calling on the name of the risen Lord Jesus is rather remarkable:

(c) A significant term is epikaleisthai, ‘to call upon’. It could be regarded as primarily a term for prayer (and so treated more appropriately in Chapter 2). But in its wide usage it signifies in effect worship as ‘calling upon God’. In the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) qara’ is regularly used ‘to denote the establishment of a relation between a human individual and God… it is the verbal appeal for the deity's presence that is foundational to all acts of prayer and worship’.30 In common Greek too epikaleisthai is regularly used of calling upon a deity.31 So, it is not surprising that the Septuagint uses the phrase frequently, epikaleisthai to onoma kyriou (‘to call upon the name of the Lord’), that is in prayer.32 The same usage naturally reappears in the New Testament, where invocation of God is in view.33 More striking, however, is the fact that it is the Lord Jesus who is ‘called upon’ on several occasions.34 And even more striking is the fact that believers can be denoted simply as ‘those who call upon the name of the Lord Jesus Christ’ (1 Cor. 1.2.).35 The defining feature of these early Christians (‘those who call upon the name of the Lord Jesus Christ’ is almost a definition, equivalent to ‘Christians’) marked them out from others who ‘called upon (the name of)’ some other deity or heavenly being.36 Moreover, in a still more striking passage, Paul refers Joel 3.5 (in the Septuagint) to Jesus: ‘everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord will be saved’ (Rom. 10.13), where it is clear from the context that ‘the Lord’ is the Lord Jesus (10.9).37 We will have to return to this passage in Chapter 4. Here we need simply note that the same language, calling upon a deity, calling upon the Lord God, is used of Christ, and as a distinguishing characteristic of the earliest believers. (Dunn, Did the First Christians Worship Jesus? The New Testament Evidence [Westminster John Knox Press, 2010], 2. The practice of worship, 2.1. prayer, pp. 15-16; bold emphasis ours)

33 Acts 2.21; 1 Pet. 1.17; cf. 2 Cor. 1.23.

34 Acts 7.59 (Stephen); Rom. 10.12, 14; 2 Tim. 2.22.

35 Also Acts 9.14, 21; 22.16; 2 Tim. 2.22. 

36 Both Hurtado (Origins 78-9; Lord Jesus Christ 198-9) and Bauckham (Jesus and the God of Israel 129-30) see these texts (1 Cor. 1.2; etc.) as evidence of ‘cultic devotion’ rendered to Jesus from ‘very early moments of the Christian movement’. In contrast, P. M. Causey, ‘Monotheism, Worship and Christological Development in the Pauline Churches’, in Newman, et. al. (eds), Jewish Roots 214-33, infers that what Paul had in mind was ‘primarily the use of acclamations and confessions such as maranatha and kyrios Iesous’ (225). Hurtado adds the use of Jesus’ name in baptism and healings/exorcisms as supporting evidence for his proposal ‘that the early Christian use of Jesus’ name represents a novel adaptation of [the] Jewish monotheistic concern [to maintain the uniqueness of the one God]’ (200-6; here 204). He comments similarly on 1 Cor. 5.1-5, that the disciplinary action referred to there ‘likely included a ritual invocation of Jesus’ name and power to effect it. Jesus’ cultic presence and power clearly operate here in the manner we otherwise associate with a god’ (Origins 80). 

37 Similarly it can be argued that since in the Pentecost speech of Acts 2 Jesus has been made Lord (2.36), the calling on the name of the Lord 2.17 refers also to cultic reverence/acclamation/invocation of the exalted Jesus (Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ, 179, 181). (Ibid., p. 16; bold emphasis ours)  

But that’s not all the early Christians did. When Stephen was about to be martyred for his testimony he cried out not to God the Father, but to the Lord Jesus Christ! 

“But he, full of the Holy Spirit, gazed into heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. And he said, ‘Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.’ But they cried out with a loud voice and stopped their ears and rushed together at him. Then they cast him out of the city and stoned him. And the witnesses laid down their garments at the feet of a young man named Saul. And as they were stoning Stephen, he called out, ‘Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.’ And falling to his knees he cried out with a loud voice, ‘Lord, do not hold this sin against them.’ And when he had said this, he fell asleep.” Acts 7:55-60

Stephen calls out to Jesus as Lord in the same way that the Psalmist cries out to Yahweh! 

Into your hand I commit my spirit; you have redeemed me, O LORD, faithful God.” Psalm 31:5

Stephen’s prayer to Christ is also similar to the way Jesus prayed to the Father while he hung on the cross: 

“Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said, ‘Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!’ And having said this he breathed his last.” Luke 23:46

Hence, this conclusively shows that the first Christians worshiped Jesus in the same way that the OT saints worshiped Yahweh! 

Stephen also identifies Jesus as the Son of Man, which is the way Christ often referred to himself, being his favorite self-description. 

What many people don't realize is that this description indicates that the followers of Christ were all expected to worship him. The reason why we say this is because Jesus used it to identify himself with the Son of Man whom the prophet Daniel saw and wrote of:  

“I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him. And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should worship him (yipelachun); his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed.” Daniel 7:13-14

It is clear from Daniel’s description that this particular Son of Man is God appearing as a man since he rides the clouds of heaven like God does, 

“An oracle concerning Egypt. Behold, the LORD is riding on a swift cloud and comes to Egypt; and the idols of Egypt will tremble at his presence, and the heart of the Egyptians will melt within them.” Isaiah 19:1 

“The LORD is a jealous and avenging God; the LORD is avenging and wrathful; the LORD takes vengeance on his adversaries and keeps wrath for his enemies. The LORD is slow to anger and great in power, and the LORD will by no means clear the guilty. His way is in whirlwind and storm, and the clouds are the dust of his feet.” Nahum 1:2-3

Rules forever like God does, and is worshiped in the same way that God is, 

“And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; his kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall worship (yipelachun) and obey him.” Daniel 7:27 

“I make a decree, that in all my royal dominion people are to tremble and fear before the God of Daniel, for he is the living God, enduring forever; his kingdom shall never be destroyed, and his dominion shall be to the end.” Daniel 6:26

“Your kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and your dominion endures throughout all generations.” Psalm 145:13 

The Quran itself acknowledges that the coming on the clouds with angels is a divine function:

Are these people waiting, perchance, for God to reveal Himself unto them in the shadows of the clouds, together with the angels - although [by then] all will have been decided, and unto God all things will have been brought back? S. 2:210 Muhammad Asad

See also Daniel 3:12, 17-18, 28; 6:16, 20; Exodus 13:21-22; 14:19-20, 24; 33:7-11; 40:34-38; Numbers 10:34; Deuteronomy 33:26-27; Psalm 22:29-30; 68:4, 33-34; 104:3; 86:9; Isaiah 66:23; Zechariah 14:1-5, 9, 16-17; Matthew 17:5; Mark 9:7; Luke 9; Revelation 14:14-16. 

That Jesus claimed to be this specific Son of Man is easily proven by the following passages: 

“And then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. Now when these things begin to take place, straighten up and raise your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.’” Luke 21:27-28 – cf. Matthew 24:30-31; Mark 13:26-27 

“While he was still speaking, there came a crowd, and the man called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He drew near to Jesus to kiss him, but Jesus said to him, ‘Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?’… When day came, the assembly of the elders of the people gathered together, both chief priests and scribes. And they led him away to their council, and they said, ‘If you are the Christ, tell us.’ But he said to them, ‘If I tell you, you will not believe, and if I ask you, you will not answer. But from now on the Son of Man shall be seated at the right hand of the power of God.’ So they all said, ‘Are you the Son of God, then?" And he said to them, "You say that I am.’ Then they said, ‘What further testimony do we need? We have heard it ourselves from his own lips.’” Luke 22:47-48, 66-70 – cf. Matthew 26:63-64; Mark 14:61-62 

Thus, by identifying himself as the Son of Man whom Daniel spoke of, Jesus was basically telling his hearers that he is the divine King whom all the nations were required to worship.  

This, therefore, establishes that Jesus’ earliest followers would have worshiped him in recognition of the fact that Christ is the divine Son of Man of Daniel’s prophecy who reigns over all the nations forever. 

The reliability of Luke-Acts 

Just in case Williams tries to undermine the reliability of the Gospels by selectively quoting critical scholars whose opinions could be used to also discredit the veracity of the Quran, we will allow renowned Christian philosopher and debater Dr. William Lane Craig explain why we can absolutely trust the testimony of the Gospels, specifically Luke-Acts: 

“… The gospel writers have a proven tract record of historical reliability. Again let’s look at just one example: Luke. Luke was the author of a two-part work: the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles. These are really one work and are separated in our Bibles only because the church grouped the gospels together in the New Testament.   

“Luke is the gospel author who writes most self-consciously as a historian. In the preface he writes: 

Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile a narrative of the things which have been accomplished among us, just as they were delivered to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word, it seemed good to me also, having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, that you may know the truth concerning the things of which you have been informed. (Luke 1:1-4 RSV)  

“This preface is written in classical Greek such as the great Greek historians used; after this Luke switches to a more common Greek. But he has put his reader on alert that he can write, if he wants to, like the learned historian. He speaks of his lengthy investigation of the story he’s about to tell and assures us that it’s based on eyewitness information and is accordingly the truth.   

“Now who was this author we call Luke? He was clearly not himself an eyewitness to Jesus’ life. But we discover an important fact about him from the book of Acts. Beginning in the sixteenth chapter of Acts, when Paul reaches Troas in modern-day Turkey, the author suddenly starts using the first-person plural: ‘We set sail from Troas to Samothrace,’ ‘We remained in Philippi some days,’ ‘As we were going to the place of prayer,’ etc. The most obvious explanation is that the author had joined Paul on his evangelistic tour of the Mediterranean cities. Eventually he accompanies Paul back to Israel and finally to Jerusalem. What this means is that the author of Luke-Acts was, in fact, in firsthand contact with the eyewitnesses of Jesus’ life and ministry in Jerusalem.  

“Skeptical critics have done backflips to try to avoid this conclusion. They say that the use of the first-person plural in Acts should not be taken literally; it was just a literary device that was common in ancient sea voyage stories. Never mind that many of the passages in Acts are not about Paul's sea voyage but take place on land! The more important point is that this theory, when you check it out, turns out to be sheer fantasy. There just was no literary device in the ancient world of sea voyages in the first-person plural–the whole thing has been shown to be a scholarly fiction! There's no avoiding the conclusion that Luke-Acts was written by a traveling companion of Paul who had the opportunity to interview eyewitnesses to Jesus’ life while in Jerusalem.” (Craig, On Guard: Defending Your Faith with Reason and Precision [Published by David C. Cook, 2010], Personal Interlude: A Philosopher’s Journey of Faith, Part Two, 8. Who Was Jesus?, pp. 191- 193)  


“Was the author reliable in getting the facts straight? The book of Acts enables us to answer that question decisively. The book of Acts overlaps significantly with the secular history of the ancient world, and the historical accuracy of Acts is indisputable. This has recently been demonstrated anew by Colin Hemer, a classical scholar who turned to New Testament studies, in his book The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History. Hemer goes through the book of Acts with a fine-tooth comb, pulling out a wealth of historical detail, ranging from what would have been common knowledge down to details that only a local person would know. Again and again Luke's accuracy is demonstrated. From the sailings of the Alexandrian corn fleet to the coastal terrain of the Mediterranean islands to the peculiar titles of local officials, Luke gets it right.  

“According to Professor Sherwin-White, ‘The confirmation of historicity in Acts is overwhelming. Any attempt to reject its historicity even in matters of detail must now appear absurd.’ The judgment of Sir William Ramsey, a world-famous archaeologist, still stands: ‘Luke is a historian of the first rank… This author should be placed along with the very greatest of historians.’ 

“Given Luke’s care and demonstrated reliability, as well as his contact with eyewitnesses within the first generation after the events, this author is trustworthy.” (Ibid., pp. 193-194) 

Thus, since Luke personally knew and even interviewed the eyewitnesses to Christ this gives us all the more confidence to trust what he writes concerning the teachings of Jesus and his earliest followers. 

Besides, it is Williams who is using these same Gospel writers to prove his case. Therefore, consistency and integrity demand that if these Gospels are credible enough to establish his position then he must accept the fact that they are reliable enough to expose his gross perversion of Biblical teaching. There is simply no way around this. 

With that said it is time to show how the testimony of the earliest eyewitness records on the life of Jesus and his disciples create a major dilemma for William’s prophet and god.

Williams’ Dilemma 

The evidence which we presented from Matthew and Luke-Acts confirms that Jesus and his earliest followers proclaimed that God forgave the debts of people on the basis of the substitutionary death of Christ on the cross. In other words, Christ’s vicarious sacrifice is the ransom which God demanded for the forgiveness of sins.  

The eyewitness testimony also shows that the Lord Jesus and his disciples also taught that salvation only comes through faith in Christ’s name.   

These same sources further testify that Jesus and his Apostles proclaimed that he is the divine Son of Man and unique Son of God who sits enthroned at God’s right hand as Lord of all creation. They even claim that God has appointed Jesus to judge the entire world, thereby determining the eternal destiny of every individual.  

If this weren’t remarkable enough, the earliest believers (most of whom were monotheistic Jews!) worshiped Jesus and even prayed to him by calling on his very name in the same way that the OT saints worshiped and called on Yahweh! 

All of these things place Williams in a rather precarious situation. Islamic theology breaks down the doctrine of monotheism in three major categories, all of which have to be maintained in order for pure monotheism to exist: 

Tauhid al-Rububiyyah. Allah is the sole creator, sustainer and sovereign lord who doesn’t allow anyone to share in his sovereignty over creation:  

And (both) the Jews and the Christians say: "We are the children of Allah and His loved ones." Say: "Why then does He punish you for your sins?" Nay, you are but human beings, of those He has created, He forgives whom He wills and He punishes whom He wills. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, and to Him is the return (of all).  S. 5:18 Hilali-Khan 

And say, 'Praise belongs to God, who has not taken to Himself a son, and has not had a partner in His kingdom, nor had a patron against (such) abasement.' And magnify Him greatly! S. 17:111 Y. Ali 

Tauhid al-Uluhiyyah/Ibaadah. All acts of worship, invocations, and prayers are to be made only to Allah. In fact, the Quran emphatically teaches Muslims to call upon Allah and to invoke him only: 

AND IF My servants ask thee about Me - behold, I am near; I respond to the call of him who calls, whenever he calls unto Me: let them, then, respond unto Me, and believe in Me, so that they might follow the right way. S. 2:186 Asad 

And the mosques are for Allah (Alone), so invoke not anyone along with Allah. S. 72:18 Hilali-Khan 

Here is how the late Muhammad Asad translated this verse: 

And [know] that all worship is due to God [alone]: hence, do not invoke anyone side by side with God! 

Tauhid al-Asma wa-Sifaat. Allah possesses certain names and characteristics, and also performs specific functions which cannot be attributed to any one else. For instance, one of the names of Allah is “the Judge,” since he will be the one on the day of judgment who determines the fate of every single creature: 

Al-Hakam: The Judge 

The Arbiter, Allah judges and there is no reversing His judgement.

Al-Hakam is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. 

"Jurisdiction belongs to Him alone." (6:63)

"Then you will all return to Me, and I will judge between you regarding the things about which you differed." (3:55) (Aisha Bewley, The Divine Names

Since the Quran asserts that Christ is not God and that Jesus’ disciples were Muslims (Q. 3:52, 59; 5:17, 72-75, 111), this means that the Apostles would have believed and upheld this particular understanding of monotheism proclaimed by Muhammad and his followers.

However, Christ and his followers taught that Jesus shares in the sovereign rule of God (al-Rububiyyah), receives the worship that is due to God (al-Uluhiyyah/Ibaadah), and also performs various divine functions and possesses certain characteristics which belong only to God (al-Asma wa-Sifaat).

Hence, Muhammad was dead wrong for claiming that all of the disciples of Christ were Muslims. Williams must do the honest thing and condemn Muhammad as a false prophet who perverted the true message of Christ and his earliest followers!

For more on the Lord’s Prayer and the forgiveness of sins we recommend this article

It is now time to unveil Islam’s real savior.